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INTERNATIONAL COAL CONFERENCE, KARACHI Oct 22, 2011. THAR COAL MINING. Dr. Markos Leontidis. Sindh Coal Fields. Thar Geology . Geology of Thar is very simple with a general strata dip of ~2° (Horizontal) Ran of Kutch fault is the only nearby bigger fault to the Area.

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international coal conference karachi oct 22 2011
INTERNATIONAL COAL CONFERENCE, KARACHI Oct 22, 2011

THAR COAL MINING

Dr. Markos Leontidis

thar geology
Thar Geology
  • Geology of Thar is very simple with a general strata dip of ~2° (Horizontal)
  • Ran of Kutch fault is the only nearby bigger fault to the Area

Thar Lignite deposit the largest in the World

thar coal potential
Thar Coal Potential
  • Thar Coal Field has a huge Coal Potential
  • Exploration activities have been carried out in 11 Blocks
  • More than 600 Exploratory Drillholes from 1995
thar geology5
Thar Geology

Overburden :

  • Thickness : 130 m to 150 m
  • Composition : Sand, Siltstone & Clayey Siltstone

Coal :

  • Number of main Coal Seams : 3
  • Main Minable Coal Seam : Approx. 70% of Total coal thickness
  • Cumulative Coal Seam thickness : 30m - 35m

Slope Stability :

  • Safety Factor : 1.3

Hydrogeology :

  • Number of Aquifers : 3
  • Aquifers are separated by Aquitard of Claystone
  • The recharge from De-watering is not unlimited and can be controlled
  • Water quality : High TDS (5000 - 10000 ppm)
slide6

Thar Coal Quality

  • Lignite quality for Thar Coal is suitable for Power generation
slide8

Mining Options for Thar Coal Field

  • Open Pit Coal Mining
  • Underground Coal Mining
  • Thar Strata (Overburden) is composed soft deposits. No hard material ,no explosives necessary
  • Open Pit Coal Mining is the best option for Thar Lignite
  • Shovel & Truck as Main Mining Equipments have been proposed.
  • Bucket Wheel Excavators may be an option for futureenhanced production
typical mine planning for thar
Typical Mine Planning for Thar
  • Key parameters
  • Total number of Coal Seam 3
  • Main Minable Coal Seam Coal Seam 2-7
  • Mining Technology Shovel & Truck
  • Number of benches 15
  • Bench height 13 m
  • Bench Width 20 m
  • Mine Depth 195 m
typical mine plan with outside dump variant
Typical Mine Plan with Outside Dump Variant

A’

Mine advancement

A

Outside Dump

Open pit advancement

thar other mines in world
Thar & other Mines in World
  • Thar can be compared to many operating Open Pit Mines of the World
  • Stripping Ratio and Heating Value of Thar Block II is feasible for successful Mine Operation (e.g. Hambach Mine- Germany, producing ~40 Mt/a lignite successfully )
thar open pit mine vs europe mines
Thar Open Pit Mine vs. Europe Mines

Hambach-Inden-Garzweiler-Ptolemais (Large Scale Mines > 20 Mt/a ), Thar ?

why thar
Why Thar ?
  • Why Thar Coal should be mined
  • Large deposit can provide fuel for power generation 5000 MW at least
  • High and constant lignite quality; one of the best lignite in the world
  • Domestic fuel. Independence from imports
  • Creation of 4000 direct jobs and 15000 indirect jobs only for phase I (1200 MW power generation at least for 50 years)
  • Competitive cost through other fuels like imported hard coal
  • Fossil fuels will continue their dominance accounting for 65% of all the electricity generated in the world, with coal dominating at 44%
  • Pakistan could meet the above mentioned world target having Thar as the largest lignite deposit
  • Case Study Block II for power generation
aquifer situation
Aquifer Situation

Dune Sand Aquifer

50m

120 m

Sub-Recent Aquifer

180m

Coal seam floor Aquifer

slide17

Selected Equipment Variants - Overburden

S/T Variant ( Variant 1)

Outside Dump (+180 m AMSL)

Shovel

Mine (-115m AMSL)

IC- Spreader Variant (Variant 2)

Spreader

Inside Dump

Conveyor Belt

Shovel

Mine (-115m AMSL)

WTS

AMSL- Above Mean Sea Level

slide18

Selected Equipment Variants- Lignite

Stockyard (+80 AMSL)

Conveyor Belt

Shovel

Mine (-115m AMSL)

Crusher

slide21

Lignite Industry in Greece

  • The quality of Greek lignite varies highly both within and across mines
  • Heating value ranges from 4390 to9610 MJ/ton
slide22

Lignite Industry in Greece

Lignite Production in Public Power Corporation mines 1958 – 2005 (Million tons)

slide23

Lignite Industry in Greece

Total masses excavated in Public Power Corporation Mines 1958 – 2005 (Million Cu. meter)