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The Wars of Religion

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  1. The Wars of Religion Western Civilization II

  2. The Rise of Nation-States • Medieval feudalism based on idea of 1 Emperor, 1 religion (“Holy Roman Empire”) • In reality, feudalism highly decentralized • New monarchies attempting to est. sovereign, centralized nation-states • King have to take power away from nobles • Methods of centralization: • More effective army • Codification & control of laws • Ability to collect taxes effectively • Strengthening of bureaucracy • Control of church

  3. The Catholic – Huguenot Struggle for France • Francis II (1559-60) married to Mary, Queen of Scots (niece of the Duc de Guise) • Huguenots led by Louis Bourbon, Prince de Condé, & Admiral de Coligny • Massacre at Vassy starts first war (1562-63) • Crown’s cooperation with Spanish suppression of Calvinists in Netherlands sparks second war (1567-68) • Third war (1568-70) began with Cardinal Lorraine’s plot to capture Condé & Coligny

  4. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572 • Henry of Navarre married Margot de Valois • Charles IX (1560-74) allowed Coligny & other Huguenot leaders to be assassinated • Henry of Navarre arrested & forced to convert Pieter Brueghel, “Massacre of the Innocents”

  5. Henry III (1574-89) & Henry IV • 1576 - Henry of Navarre escaped; Edict of Beaulieu granted power to Huguenots • 1584 - Henry of Navarre became heir presumptive • excommunicated by Pope Sixtus V • Duc de Guise formed Catholic League • 1585 - Henry III outlawed Huguenots • 1588 - Henry III assassinated Duc de Guise • 1589 – king allied with Henry of Navarre vs. League; assassinated in July by a monk

  6. Henry IV and the Catholic League • Henry IV’s siege of Paris relieved by Spanish Duke of Parma • 1593 – Estates-General accepted Henry IV after he converts to Catholicism • 1594 – Edict of Nantes allows toleration of Huguenots • Henry IV & Duke of Sully stabilized France after Wars of Religion

  7. Henry IV Enters Paris, Spring 1594, by Rubens

  8. The 30 Years’ War (1618-1648) • War began when Protestant nobles rebelled against Emperor Ferdinand II • Defenestration of Prague (1618) • Protestant League defeated at White Mountain (1620) & lost Palatinate (1622) • Danes intervene under Christian IV but routed by Albrecht von Wallenstein (1625-29) • Swedes intervene under Gustavus Adolphus (1630) – defeat Wallenstein at Lützen (1632) • French ally with Swedes (1635) - crush Spanish at Rocroi (1643), then defeat Bavarians

  9. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) • Peace of Westphalia effectively ended Holy Roman Empire • All German states got to choose denomination (Catholic, Lutheran or Calvinist) • Brandenburg-Prussia begins to emerge