Participants: Allies: Green Axis: yellow Neutral Grey. Goals?. You should be able to answer the following questions by the conclusion of this unit: What caused the Great War? How did the War lead to revolution and the fall of Empires?
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Goals? You should be able to answer the following questions by the conclusion of this unit: • What caused the Great War? • How did the War lead to revolution and the fall of Empires? • How and why did war and revolution have such enormous and destructive consequences? • How did the years of trauma and bloodshed form elements of today’s world? (What are the long-term impacts?) • Understand the dynamic nature of Russian revolutionism during the WWI period.
Destruction? • Estimates Vary: • 300 Billion in 1919 dollars in damage (close to trillions today) • 10 million war deaths • 25 million civilian deaths
Allied Powers:Russian EmpireFranceBritish EmpireItalyUnited States Central Powers:Austria-HungaryGerman EmpireOttoman EmpireBulgaria Combatants
Cause 2: Berlin Confernce and Imperialism • Constant competition for resources and new territories led to the tension that was growing in the early 20th century. • Africa, Middle East, and the Ottoman Empire were targets.
Nationalism: the good, the bad, and the ugly • Alsace and Lorraine. Germany and France • Pan-Slavist Movement • Self-Determination a world wide goal. • Diversity of Ottoman State and Austria- Hungary • German nationalism
Militarism • New Weaponry • Naval Buildup • U-Boats
WWI Images • Warfare and propaganda techniques
Poison Gas Deaths: 1914-1918 Country Non-Fatal Deaths Total British Empire 180,597 8,109 188,706 France 182,000 8,000 190,000 United States 71,345 1,462 72,807 Italy 55,373 4,627 60,000 Russia 419,340 56,000 475,340 Germany 191,000 9,000 200,000 Austria-Hungary 97,000 3,000 100,000 Others 9,000 1,000 10.000 Total 1,205,655 91,198 1,296,853 British Gas Casualties: 1914-18 Deaths Non-Fatal Chlorine 1,976 164,457 Mustard Gas 4,086 16,526
Propaganda • Mobilization for the war effort