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Chapters 9-10 (LeUnes) Chapters 1-3 (Orlick) Motivation. Psychology of Sport Sep 16, 21-23, 2009 Classes #9, 11-12. Who is going to Heaven?. Bill Clinton Dennis Rodman Oprah Winfrey Princess Diana Mother Theresa YOU?. Self-Serving Attributional Bias.

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Chapters 9 10 leunes chapters 1 3 orlick motivation

Chapters 9-10 (LeUnes)Chapters 1-3 (Orlick)Motivation

Psychology of Sport

Sep 16, 21-23, 2009

Classes #9, 11-12

Who is going to heaven
Who is going to Heaven?

  • Bill Clinton

  • Dennis Rodman

  • Oprah Winfrey

  • Princess Diana

  • Mother Theresa

  • YOU?

Self serving attributional bias
Self-Serving Attributional Bias

  • A tendency to view oneself favorably

  • Generally believe that you do more work & anything good

  • Were less responsible for accidents, divorces, & anything bad

Cognitive attribution model
Cognitive Attribution Model

  • Causal Antecedents for Behavior

    • Ability

    • Effort

    • Task

    • Luck

Self efficacy

  • Bandura (1977)

    • A belief in our own possibilities; competency to execute skills demanded of the situation

    • Efficacy expectancy:

      • Person’s belief about their abilities

      • High in this:

        • more persistent, less anxious, less depressed

The wheel of excellence
The Wheel of Excellence

  • Self-Efficacy

  • Self-Confidence

Functional attribution model
Functional Attribution Model

  • A model used by sport psychologists to study attributions

  • It assumes that the main function of an individual's attributions of the causes for a particular performance is to maintain self-esteem

  • Thus, athletes tend to attribute positive outcomes to personal controls (e.g. ability) and negative outcomes to external controls, such as luck

  • The model assumes that athletes adopt a self-serving attributional bias


  • The underlying processes that initiate, direct and sustain behavior in order to satisfy physiological and psychological needs or wants

  • Psychological and social factors involved insofar as direction, intensity of behavior/effort are concerned

    • As well as sustaining that direction and intensity over time

Achievement motivation
Achievement Motivation

  • Henry Murray(1938)

    • He defined achievement motivation as:

      • A desire for significant accomplishment, for mastering skills or ideas, for control over things or people, and for rapidly attaining a high standard of excellence

      • The desire to do things well and feel pleasure in overcoming obstacles

        • E.g., sports, science, business, etc.

Achievement motivation1
Achievement Motivation

  • People with a high need achievement are motivated to master tasks and take great pride in doing so

    • In contrast, people with low achievement needs seem to enjoy success because they have avoided failure

Characteristics of high need achievers
Characteristics of High Need Achievers

  • Easy, Hard, or Moderate Goals?

    • People with a high need to achieve set challenging but realistic goals that have clear outcomes

      • They like these intermediate tasks because it provides the most information about their ability

      • If they do well on an easy task – who cares

      • If you fail at a hard task – well, no one does well on those

  • Same thing applies to their risk-taking tendencies…

    • Moderate risk-takers

Characteristics of high need achievers1
Characteristics of High Need Achievers

  • Feedback or not?

    • They like feedback from competent critics (ASAP, please)

    • Concrete feedback is best

  • Stay or move on to easier things?

    • Stay and persevere – “never give up”

  • Concern or no concern for measurements of success?

    • Very concerned

    • Bonuses, incentives, etc. are very important

      • This is closely related to feedback

Characteristics of high need achievers2
Characteristics of High Need Achievers

  • Social problems?

    • Unfortunately, often this is the case

  • Strong need to be able to anticipate and make long term plans

    • Not really into surprises

    • Need to have things mapped out

  • They use information well in their planning

    • This helps them to avoid those surprises mentioned above

Characteristics of high need achievers3
Characteristics of High Need Achievers

  • Very energetic approach

    • To all things but especially to work

    • They like to work

    • They are especially invigorated by creative tasks

  • Development of Achievement Motivation

    • The need for achievement appears to be largely learned from parents and other cultural arenas

  • Intrinsic Motivation (inner reasons)

    • Appears to be a major motivator here

Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation

  • EXTRINSIC: Motivated by external rewards

    • Performing an activity to achieve instrumental outcomes

Impact of rewards on behavior
Impact of Rewards on Behavior

  • What types of things make you want to improve or perform better?

  • What types of things are most rewarding?

Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation1
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation

  • INTRINSIC: Inner striving to be competent, master task

    • Engage in interesting activities to seek and achieve optimal challenges

How to enhance intrinsic motivation
How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation

  • Assess both situational and personal factors

    • Think interaction!

  • Structure situations to meet people’s needs

  • Provide for successful experiences

How to enhance intrinsic motivation1
How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation

  • Reward contingent on performance

  • Use verbal and nonverbal praise

  • Vary content & sequence of practice drills

How to enhance intrinsic motivation2
How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation

  • Involve athletes / students / clients in decision making

  • Set realistic performance goals

  • Recognize that YOU are a critical part of the motivational climate!

But be careful of overjustification
But be careful of overjustification…

  • Example: Child cleaning his/her room…

    • Why do they do it?

Mcclelland atkinson clark lowell 1953
McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell (1953)

  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

    • Measures latent needs (needs that can not be openly observed)

    • Apperception is the process of projecting imagery onto an outside stimulus, such as a picture. The theory suggests the stories you describe reflect your latent motivations (dispositional needs)

    • It assesses your motives by telling or writing a story about ambiguous pictures

Coaches attempts to motivate
Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate

  • A Major League baseball coach agrees to dye his hair if his team wins three games in a row

Coaches attempts to motivate1
Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate

  • Piniella said after the third victory that he intended to rescind his offer to dye his hair if the Devil Rays had not won because he thought the pledge had the potential to become a hindrance to the team

    • “The color of my hair has nothing to do with wins and losses”

  • The winning streak ended abruptly with an 11-3 loss.

Motivating athletes
Motivating Athletes...

  • Why do people participate in sport and exercise?

    • What motivated you as an athlete, student, etc.?

  • Why do they drop-out?

    • What demotivated you?

  • How do you motivate your athletes, students, clients?

Locus of control measurement with youth
Locus of Control Measurement with Youth

  • Older children generally more internal than younger children

Self fulfilling prophecy
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

  • The tendency to create or find in a situation or individual what one expects to find

  • Because one believes something, one acts in a way that makes the outcome more likely

Self actualization

  • Maslow (1970)

    • Reaching one’s peak or spiritual level

    • Full-potential

Setting performance goals in sport
Setting Performance Goals in Sport

  • Locke and Latham (1985)

    • Specific, difficult goals

    • Short-term goals important

    • Goals help insofar as effort, persistance, and direction of attention is concerned

    • Feedback

    • Goals must be accepted to affect performance


  • Several slides prepared by:

    •,25,Teacher characteristics that promote motivation

    •,2,Who is going to Heaven?

    •,2,Social Cognition/Attribution Theory