Turmoil over Taxation Chapter 5 section 2
Bell Ringer! • Why did the British government see the need to begin taxing the colonies? • What was the main reason why colonists resisted these taxes? • What other issues did they have with the British in America?
Britain Imposes New Taxes • The French and Indian War plunged Britain deeply into debt. • Britain needs more revenue • The British Prime Minister, George Grenville, decided that the colonists should help pay off the post war debt. Grenville decided to use taxation on goods, such as sugar, to help cover the debt.
The Quartering Act (1765) • Under this law, colonists had to provide candles, food, drinks, and a place to sleep for British soldiers stationed in their area. • Cost saving measure for Britain
The Sugar Act Grenville persuaded Parliament to pass the Sugar Act (1764); which placed a heavy tax on molasses. As a result, colonists resorted to smuggling molasses into the colonies.
The Stamp Act In 1765, Grenville persuaded Parliament to pass the Stamp Act. The act placed duties (taxes) on legal documents such as: Wills, Diplomas, Contracts Marriage papers Newspapers and Almanacs Playing Cards and Dice
The Bostonians Paying the Excise-Man, 1774 British propaganda print that depicts the tarring and feathering of Boston Commissioner of Customs John Malcolm. This was the second time Malcolm had been tarred and feathered.
“No Taxation without Representation” • Colonists used this quote as a way to express their feelings on British taxes. • The colonists wanted a voice in the British government (Parliament) • Colonists were willing to pay taxes, but only the taxes that were passed by the colonies. No Taxation without Representation!!!
STAMP ACT CONGRESS • October 1765 - 9 colonies sent delegates to a meeting in New York • The delegates created a petition to the king, rejecting the Stamp Act, Parliament had no right to tax the colonies • Colonial merchants then created a boycott of all British goods No British Goods!
Petition and Boycott • A petition is a formal written request to someone in authority, signed by a group of people. • To boycott means to refuse to buy certain goods and services. In many cases, people boycott something in protest.
Repeal of the Stamp Act • The boycott worked and Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766! • Parliament also passed the Declaratory Act giving them supreme authority to govern the colonies
THE TOWNSHEND ACTS(1767) • The duties were collected before the goods entered the colonies – Townshend thought this would anger the colonists less than a direct tax like the Stamp Act • Britain placed a tax on the following: • GLASS • PAPER • LEAD • PAINT • TEA
Writs of Assistance • A legal document, used by British officials, to inspect or search a ship’s cargo without reason or justification.
The Sons of Liberty • Secret society formed to oppose British policies • This group of colonial protesters urges people to boycott British Goods. • Staged protests • Burned stamped paper, attacked customs officials Leader: Paul Revere Founder: Sam Adams
Calls for Protest! • Anger that Britain was placing new taxes on them • Argued that Writs of Assistance went against their basic rights • Serious threat to their rights and freedom • Boston • Another boycott of British goods led by Samuel Adams • Daughters of Liberty join in and encourage colonists to weave their own cloth and use American products • British trade fell sharply
THE BOSTON MASSACRE • Fall of 1768 1,000 British soldiers arrived in Boston ( General Thomas Gage) – tensions rose • On March 5th 1770, outside a Boston customs house, a group of colonists shouted insults (protesting the Quartering Act) at “redcoats” guarding the building. • Protesters shouted insults such as “lobster back” and threw snowballs, oyster shells and chunks of ice at the British soldiers. • As the crowd grew larger the British soldiers panicked and fired their muskets. • http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=4B0442AF-D158-4B79-A9A5-FF6D0CB6E7C1&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
Results of the Boston Massacre • Five people were killed by the soldiers, • Samuel Maverick, 17 years old, and Crispus Attucks, an African American sailor were both fatally wounded • John Adams defended the soldiers on murder charges • The jury ruled that they had acted in self-defense • Became a tool for anti-British propaganda
Committee of Correspondence • Letter-writing campaign, led by Sam Adams • This committee, from Boston, wrote letters to other colonies in an effort to keep them informed • Became very successful as a means for protest