Centuries of Turmoil - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Centuries of Turmoil

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  1. Centuries of Turmoil Pages 575 to 579

  2. Foreign Invaders • Nomads from Central Asia dominated ME in the 1000s • Wanted fertile land of the Mesopotamia

  3. Crusaders • Pope Urban II called for in 1095 • Crusade- holy war Christian and Western regions to lead crusades- (France, Germany, England, & Italy) • Against the Muslims • Goal= Recapture Palestine (the Holy Land)

  4. Why was Palestine the Holy Land? • Because Jesus lived and died there.

  5. 1st Crusade • 1096 • Crusaders slaughtered Muslim and Jewish residents in order to take over Jerusalem. • Set up Christian kingdoms along the Mediterranean

  6. Continued… • Crusades had limited effect • Western Europe less advanced than ME at the time • Brilliant Muslim general, Saladin, drove Christians out of Jerusalem

  7. Saladin: A Noble Warrior 1100s • Respected by both Muslims and Christians • Conquered Jerusalem without killing its inhabitants • Broke tradition of making defeated peoples slaves

  8. Ottoman Empire • 1300s • Turkish-speaking people from Central Asia who converted to Islam • Empire stretched from Europe, across the Middle East to North Africa • Captured Constantinople (Capital of Byzantine Empire) • Stunned European Christians

  9. Continued… • Ottomans renamed capital Istanbul • OE lasted for over 500 years • Head of gov’t= sultan had a lot of people run empire • Men of pen= lawyers, judges, mathematicians • Men of the sword= soldiers/slaves

  10. Role of Ottoman Slaves • Conquered peoples became slaves • Converted Christian slaves to Islam • When slaves converted they became free Othman I, Founder of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan 1299-1326

  11. The Millets • Millets- non-Muslim communities • Owed loyalty to sultan, but each had its own religious leader

  12. The Safavid Empire (Iran today) • 1500s chief rival of OE • Two empires waged bloody wars for control of Mesopotamia • Safavid= Shiite • Ottoman= Sunni

  13. Continued… • Safavid Empire lasted until 1736 • Ruled by shahs, or kings • Iran was ruled by shahs until 1979!