Centuries of Turmoil Pages 575 to 579
Foreign Invaders • Nomads from Central Asia dominated ME in the 1000s • Wanted fertile land of the Mesopotamia
Crusaders • Pope Urban II called for in 1095 • Crusade- holy war Christian and Western regions to lead crusades- (France, Germany, England, & Italy) • Against the Muslims • Goal= Recapture Palestine (the Holy Land)
Why was Palestine the Holy Land? • Because Jesus lived and died there.
1st Crusade • 1096 • Crusaders slaughtered Muslim and Jewish residents in order to take over Jerusalem. • Set up Christian kingdoms along the Mediterranean
Continued… • Crusades had limited effect • Western Europe less advanced than ME at the time • Brilliant Muslim general, Saladin, drove Christians out of Jerusalem
Saladin: A Noble Warrior 1100s • Respected by both Muslims and Christians • Conquered Jerusalem without killing its inhabitants • Broke tradition of making defeated peoples slaves
Ottoman Empire • 1300s • Turkish-speaking people from Central Asia who converted to Islam • Empire stretched from Europe, across the Middle East to North Africa • Captured Constantinople (Capital of Byzantine Empire) • Stunned European Christians
Continued… • Ottomans renamed capital Istanbul • OE lasted for over 500 years • Head of gov’t= sultan had a lot of people run empire • Men of pen= lawyers, judges, mathematicians • Men of the sword= soldiers/slaves
Role of Ottoman Slaves • Conquered peoples became slaves • Converted Christian slaves to Islam • When slaves converted they became free Othman I, Founder of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan 1299-1326
The Millets • Millets- non-Muslim communities • Owed loyalty to sultan, but each had its own religious leader
The Safavid Empire (Iran today) • 1500s chief rival of OE • Two empires waged bloody wars for control of Mesopotamia • Safavid= Shiite • Ottoman= Sunni
Continued… • Safavid Empire lasted until 1736 • Ruled by shahs, or kings • Iran was ruled by shahs until 1979!