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Bell Ringer #1. When and where did the Industrial Revolution begin? Use Chapter 19 Section 1!. Chapter 19 Section 1. The Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution Starts in Great Britain, 1780s Five Reasons- Farming Population Capital Resources Colonies.

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Bell Ringer #1


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    1. Bell Ringer #1 • When and where did the Industrial Revolution begin? Use Chapter 19 Section 1!

    2. Chapter 19 Section 1 The Industrial Revolution

    3. Industrial Revolution • Industrial Revolution • Starts in Great Britain, 1780s • Five Reasons- • Farming • Population • Capital • Resources • Colonies

    4. Contributing Factors • Better farming practices • More food (potatoes) • Money for manufactured goods • Population growth • Large labor force • Ready supply of capital • Capital- $ to invest in machines & factories • Entrepreneurs- person interested in finding new business opportunities

    5. Contributing Factors 4. Natural resources • Rivers- Water Power & Transportation • Coal & iron ore- Manufacturing • Huge colonial empire • Markets- places to sell goods

    6. 18th – 19th c. Changes in Cotton • Cottage industry- spinning and weaving in own home • New inventions brought workers to factories; flying shuttle • 1782- James Watt improved the steam engine so it could drive machinery • Import of Cotton • 1760- 2.5 mil lbs • 1787- 22 mil lbs • 1840- 366 mil lbs

    7. 18th – 19th c. Coal and Iron • Steam engine ran on coal • ↑ (increased) coal production • Puddling- process of burning away impurities in crude iron • Better quality of iron • Iron production • 1740- 17,000 tons • 1780- 70,000 tons • 1852- 3 mil tons

    8. 19th c. Railroads • 1804- 1st steam-powered engine • 1830- The Rocket- first public train • Liverpool to Manchester • Railroad Track- • 1840- 2,000 miles • 1850- 6,000 miles • New jobs, cheap transportation

    9. 19th c. Factories • New labor system • Shift work • Behavioral expectations • On time • Fired for being drunk • Child workers beaten

    10. The Spread of Industrialization • Mid 19th century • Britain was the 1st and richest industrial nation Europe • Belgium, France, and Germany • Government paid for infrastructure to support industrialization

    11. Spread of Industrialization United States • Farmers produced more crops due to mechanization of tools • Increase in population due to immigration • Transportation • Railroads • Steamboat (1807) • Factory workers = women and girls

    12. The Clermont1st Steamboat

    13. Social Impact in Europe • Industrialization drastically changed the social life of Europe • Growth of cities • Emergence of two new social classes • Industrial Middle Class • Industrial Working Class

    14. Growth of Population and Cities • European Population • 1750- 140 mil • 1850-266 mil • More food supply • European Cities • Home to industries • 50% of G.B. population lived in cities (1850) • Terrible living conditions

    15. The Industrial Middle Class • Industrial Capitalism- economic system based on industrial production • Produced the industrial middle class • Built factories, bought machines, understood markets • Bosses and owners of factories

    16. The Industrial Working Class • Terrible working conditions • 12-16 hr work days • 6 days a week • No employment security • No minimum wage • Women and Children • 2/3rd of laborers • Factory Act of 1833 • Minimum age of 9

    17. Bell Ringer #2 • What did Thomas Alva Edison invent? • What did Alexander Graham Bell invent? Use Chapter 20 Section 1!

    18. Chapter 20 Sections 1 and 2 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity & The Emergence of Mass Society

    19. 2nd Industrial Revolution • Steel- • Bessemer Process- technique used to turn iron into steel • Mass production of steel • Electricity- • Thomas Edison- perfected the incandescent light bulb • Established power plants to generate electricity

    20. 2nd Industrial Revolution • Steel- • Andrew Carnegie- Carnegie Steel Company • Created a monopoly (no competition) on steel in the US • Vertical Integration- owning supply, manufacturing, and distribution companies • Horizontal Integration- buying competing companies • Social Darwinism- strongest businesses survive

    21. 2nd Industrial Revolution • Electricity- • Made industry grow • Shift work (1st, 2nd, 3rd) • Led to the invention of appliances • Toaster, washer, razor • Made travel cheaper • Street cars, subways • Alexander G. Bell- invented the telephone • Transcontinental Railroad- connected eastern US to western US

    22. Changes in Travel • Street Cars • San Francisco • 1873 • Bridges • Brooklyn Bridge • 1883 • Subways • New York City • 1897 • Airplane • Orville and Wilbur Wright • 1st flight at Kitty Hawk, NC • 1903, 120 ft, 12 sec.

    23. Education and Women • State funded schools • Increase in literacy • Women’s Rights Movement • Suffrage (right to vote) • Feminism- movement for women’s rights • More job opportunities • Clerks, secretaries • Fewer children

    24. Spread of Mass Culture • American Leisure • Amusement parks • Roller coaster and Ferris wheel • Bicycling, tennis • Theater • Boxing, baseball • Snack foods- Hershey Bar and Coca Cola

    25. Trade (Labor) Unions • Trade (Labor) Unions- • Organized workers in the same type of industry • Steel, coal, textile • Worked together to improve conditions of laborers • Safety, hours, pay • Strike- form of protest to promote union goals • Employees did not work unless the employers met their demands

    26. Bell Ringer #3 What is Imperialism? Use Chapter 21 Section 1!

    27. Not In Textbook Imperialism

    28. New Imperialism Old Imperialism vs. New Imperialism Old Imperialism • Occurred between 16th and 18th centuries • European powers built a series of trading stations • Cooperated with local rulers in Africa, India, China, Japan, and Indonesia • Traded for goods and slaves • EXTENSTION OF A NATION’S POWER OVER OTHER LANDS • Now European Countries wanted DIRECT control over their territories

    29. Motivations for Imperialism • Economics • Control trading markets and raw materials • Rubber, oil, and tin

    30. Motivations for Imperialism • Create Colonies • Dominate Rivals • Gain trading advantage • National prestige

    31. Motivations for Imperialism • Social Darwinism • In the struggle between nations, the fit (most powerful( are victorious • Europeans were believe to be superior to other races • Racist ideologies

    32. Motivations for Imperialism • Moral Responsibility • “Civilize” the primitive people • White Man’s Burden

    33. The White Man’s Burden Poem by Rudyard Kipling Written to urge the U.S. to help the British with the “burden” of colonization The ruling of other nations for their benefit

    34. The Brown Man’s Burden Poem by H.T. Johnson Written in response to Kipling’s poem Compared the treatment of the people in the Philippines to that of African Americans.

    35. Bell Ringer #4 What is a protectorate? Define annex. Use Chapter 21 Sections 1 and 2!

    36. Chapter 21 Sections 1 and 2 Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia And Empire Building in Africa

    37. Great Britain in Southeast Asia • 1819- Singapore • Malay Peninsula • Trade route • Mid-1800s- Burma • Modern Myanmar • Protect possessions in India and land route to China

    38. France in Southeast Asia • 1857- Vietnam • Protectorate- a political unit that depends on another government for its protection • Prevent British takeover of Vietnam • 1880s- Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin, and Laos

    39. United States in Southeast Asia • 1898- Philippines • Gained after the Spanish American War • Trade with China • Prevent Japanese expansion • “Civilize” Filipinos

    40. Indirect and Direct Rule • Indirect Rule- Colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status • Gain access to natural resources • Lower cost in government • Less effect on local culture

    41. Indirect and Direct Rule • Direct Rule- Colonial government in which local elites are removed from power and replaced by a new set of officials brought from the mother country • Prevented rebellion • Great Britain  Burma • France  Northern Indochina

    42. West Africa • 1808- • Slave trade declared illegal • Before 1880- • No European Control • After 1880- • 6 European nations • 1874- • Britain annexed (took control of) the west coast • Gold Coast

    43. North Africa • 1854-69- • France built the Suez Canal • “Life line to India” • 1875- • British took over the Suez Canal, Egypt, and Sudan • 1879- • French controlled Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco

    44. Central Africa • Tropical Jungles • 1841- • David Livingstone (explorer) wanted Britain to send settlers to Congo (No) • Later asked Belgium (King Leopold II) • 1876- • Settlers came from Belgium

    45. East Africa • 1885- • Great Britain and Germany • Berlin Conference- staked out claims for European countries • Britain and Germany got most of East Africa • No AFRICAN delegates were present

    46. South Africa • 1865- • 200,000 white people • Indigenous (native) people were put on reservations • Zulu (African tribe) waged constant war with Europeans • Later completely controlled by Britain • Diamond and gold mines

    47. Colonial Rule in Africa • 1914- • GB, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Portugal divided up Africa • Only independent African nations were Liberia and Ethiopia • Britain used indirect rule • Led to tribal tensions • Others used direct rule • Assimilate African subjects into European culture