A Religious Awakening Chapter 4, Section 1
The Second Great Awakening • The first Great Awakening had taken place in the early 1700s. The Second Great Awakeningbegan in the 1800s and lasted half the century. • It was a revival of religion to combat the immorality that had arisen. The preachers that pushed for this re-emergence of religion were known as revivalists. • These revivalists adopted an evangelical style of worship—one that sought to attract strong emotions from potential converts. • Leading evangelical preachers: Charles Finney; Lyman Beecher
The Second Great Awakening • The first push for separation of church and state happened during this time. Many thought that the federal government should help increase morality by protecting the Sabbath. • While revivalists embraced African-Americans, often times these individuals broke off to form their own churches, like the African Methodist Episcopal Church. • Religion provided slaves with the hope for eternal freedom, and at times spurred them to revolt against their enslavement.
The Second Great Awakening • The new explosion of religious backing brought about two new religions. • Joseph Smith founded the Mormon religion in New York State in 1830. His followers formed the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. • Another group, believing that the holy Trinity formed one entity became known as Unitarians and they represented an emerging Christian liberalism.
Non-Protestants Face Discrimination • Most of the preachers during the Second Great Awakening were Protestant. Thus, those religions that were not faced persecution. • Mormons lived together in their own communities and acted as a group in terms of owning property and voting. • The Mormons were pushed further and further west away from others. When Joseph Smith announced his run for president, non-Mormons were outraged and Smith was killed. • Catholics faced discrimination because Americans feared their loyalty to the Popeover the U.S. They were also discriminated against because of their poverty level. Why were they feared? Americans feared they would take away jobs b/c they worked for less. • Jews were also discriminated against, often times being barred from holding office by state constitutions.
Utopias and Transcendentalism • Many Americans hoped for a better life by creating new communities based on shared property, labor and family life. • These communities were known as utopiasbecause they were hoped to be perfect societies. • The two most well-known communities were Brook Farm and New Harmony.
Utopias and Transcendentalism • Another group that gained momentum during this time period were Transcendentalists. These individuals believed that a person could go beyond their senses to learn about the world. • They believed more in the power of nature rather than religion. • The two most famous transcendentalists: Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.
A Reforming Society Chapter 4, Section 2
Reforming Education • The main goal of the public schools movementwas to establish a system of tax-supported public schools. • They argued that education would provide children with the knowledge to make decisions, but also boost the economybycreating knowledgeable workers. • The leader of the public education movement was Horace Mann. Mann had campaigned for better schooling in his home state of Massachusetts. • Catharine Beecher, daughter of evangelist Lyman Beecher, also contributed to this movement.
Helping the Ill and Imprisoned • Some Americans chose to focus their reform efforts on those without a voice. Dorothea Dixbecame the leader of the movement to help the mentally ill. • Most of the time these individuals were locked up with criminals, so Dix campaigned for the construction of mental hospitals. She was successful in her endeavor. • Dix was also a leader of the penitentiary movement. The goal of the reformers was to make criminals feel sorrow for their crimes.
The Temperance Movement • The problems caused by industrialization were often linked to alcohol. Reformers sought to limit the abuse of alcohol to fix the problems it created in society. This was known as the temperance movement. • The major leader of this movement was Neal Dow.
Asssignment- Test Grade • Create two political cartoons- one reflecting the viewpoints of the 1800s, one reflecting a more modern opinion. • Each political cartoon will be worth up to 25 points: • 1800s cartoon: • Understanding of the movement as a whole (15 points) • Creativity (10 points) • Modern-day cartoon: • Demonstrates change over time/current opinions on issue (15 points) • Creativity (10 points) • Remember, political cartoons are funny, but always have a basis in fact!