presented by g4 erik church steve nyquist michael grady jennifer miller n.
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Presented by G4: Erik Church Steve Nyquist Michael Grady Jennifer Miller PowerPoint Presentation
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Presented by G4: Erik Church Steve Nyquist Michael Grady Jennifer Miller

Presented by G4: Erik Church Steve Nyquist Michael Grady Jennifer Miller

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Presented by G4: Erik Church Steve Nyquist Michael Grady Jennifer Miller

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  1. H.A.S.K.E.L.L. The Project Highway Automation Simulation Kit Electronically Locating Lines Presented by G4: Erik Church Steve Nyquist Michael Grady Jennifer Miller

  2. Project Goals • Design and build a car that will model an automated highway system • The car must stay on a line and avoid collisions • Stay within a $200 limit • Optimally, the car will go wicked fast • Generate a course geared towards sophomores that will reproduce similar results

  3. The Motorola MC9S12DP256 Chip on the Axiom CML12S-DP256 Board

  4. Why use the CML12S-DP256? • Two 8 Channel Analog-To-Digital Converters • Eight Pulse Width Modulation Channels • Numerous I/O Pins • Coded in Assembly Language

  5. Sharp-GP2D12 Distance Sensor • Detects objects at a maximum distance of 80cm • Increases voltage output as distance to the object decreases

  6. Tape Detection • We used IR Emitters and Detectors to locate the tape • Dark colors absorb IR while bright colors reflect it • IR is emitted toward the floor • Tile floor reflects IR back to the detector while the tape absorbs it • If an IR detector reads high IR it is over the floor • If an IR detector reads low IR it is over the tape

  7. IR Emitter and Phototransistor • IR Emitter: Jameco id#112150 • IR Phototransistor: Jameco id#112168 • Paired an emitter with each phototransistor • Benefits to using two components: • Cheaper (8 emitters/ 8 detectors $3.04) • Disadvantages: • Needed an addition breadboard

  8. IR Circuit

  9. Sensor Array • Emitters on the top row • Phototransistors on the bottom row R3 R2 R1 R L L1 L2 L3 Front of Car • 8 IR emitter/detector pairs • Close enough that at least one sensor detects the tape at all times

  10. Analog-To-Digital Converter

  11. ATD Control Registers • ATDxCTL2 – Contains the power-up bit • ATDxCTL4 – Sets sample time and ATD clock prescaler • ATDxCTL5 – Contains the multi-channel conversion bit • Must write to ATDxCTL5 to start a new conversion • ATDxSTAT – Contains the sequence complete flag

  12. How to Read the ATD • Once the sequence is complete, simply load ADRxy, where x is the ATD and y is the pin. • Example: To read the last pin of ATD1, load ADR17.

  13. The Futaba S3003 Servo(The Official Servo of CSE 480) • Requires 5V source with ground connected to ground on board • Controlled by Pulse Width Modulation • 20ms Period • 1.152ms Duty for straight • 1.56ms Duty for full right • 0.808ms Duty for full left

  14. Duratrax Electronic Speed Control • Requires a 5V power source, just like the servo • Controlled by PWM • Period of 20ms • 1.664ms Duty for neutral • 1.04ms Duty for full speed reverse • This most likely won’t be used • 2.00ms Duty for full speed forward • G4 would not like to mention exactly how fast full speed is but would like it to be noted that the SEB 133 lab is too small to make practical use of such alarming speeds

  15. Motor • Photon Speed 20 Turn Motor • Lower number of turns means faster motor • Most RC motors are 27 turn

  16. Pulse Width Modulation

  17. PWM Control Registers • PWMCTL – Allows concatenation of channels • PWMSCLA – Sets Clock SA • Clock SA = Clock A / ( 2 * PWMSCLA ) • PWMPERx – Sets the period of channel x • PWMx Period = Clock * 2 * PWMPERx • PWMDTYx – Sets the duty for channel x • Duty Cycle = PWMDTYx / PWMPERx

  18. Setting PWM to Correct Values • PWMSCLA = $02 • Clock SA = 16MHz / ( 2 * 2 ) = 4MHz • Clock SA Period = 0.25ms • PWMPER(0&1) = $9C40 = !40,000 • PWM0 Period = 0.00025ms * 2 * 40000 = 20ms • PWMDTY(0&1) = $0D00 = !3328 • PWM0 Duty = 0.00025ms * 2 * 3328 = 1.664ms • Duty Cycle = 1.664ms / 20ms * 100 = 8.32% 5V 0V 1.664ms 20ms

  19. ATD00 ATD01 ATD02 ATD10 ATD11 ATD12 ATD13 ATD14 ATD15 PJ0 PWM4&5 PWM0&1 PWM2 PWM3 Inside IR Sensors Distance Sensor Outside IR Sensors Horn (Buzzer) Servo ESC Blinkers Overall Schematic

  20. Start INIT Set ATD0CTL5 No SCF? Yes DISTANCE TRACK Main Program • INIT – Initializes ATDs and PWM Channels • DISTANCE – Reads the distance sensor and adjusts speed as needed • TRACK – Reads the IR sensors and turns car as needed

  21. Distance Read Distance Sensor > $0E? BRAKE Yes No Turn off horn and Brake Lights Return Distance Subroutine • BRAKE – Stops the car, turns on brake lights and honks the horn

  22. Track Subroutine Track Read in Left Inner IR Sensor into A • Straight – Sets servo straight • VRight – Sets servo to veer right • VLeft – Sets servo to veer left • OUTSIDE – Checks if other IR sensors detect tape Read in Right Inner IR Sensor into B Left on Black? Right on Black? STRAIGHT Yes Yes No No Right on Black? VLeft VRight Yes No OUTSIDE Return

  23. Outside L3-Turn R3-Turn Yes Yes Set ATD1CTL5 On Tape? On Tape? No Load R3 SCF? No No Load L3 NoTrack No Yes On Tape? R2-Turn Load L1 Yes On Tape? Yes Return L1-Turn Load R2 No No On Tape? L2-Turn Load R1 Yes On Tape? Yes R1-Turn No Load L2 Outside Subroutine

  24. Budget Sharp GP2D12 Infrared Ranger: $$$8.25 8 IR Phototransistor (id#112168): 0$$1.92 (bulk) 8 IR Emitters (id#112150): 0$$1.12 (bulk) Car Kit (includes) Car, ESC, Motor, Frame, Wheels, Other: $$58.88 Futaba S3003 Servo: $$$9.99 6-cell battery: $$$8.32 (bulk) Breadboard: $$$3.90 (bulk) 3 9v Batteries: $$$1.65 (bulk) 3 Battery Connectors: $$$0.75 (bulk) 2 LEDs: $$$0.22 (bulk) Resistors and Wires: $$$0.25 (bulk) 2 5V Voltage Regulators: $$$0.44 CML-9S12DP256: $115.00 Total: $210.69

  25. Things We Could Have Changed • Use Rechargeable Batteries • Utilize the LCD and Keypad that came with the DP256 board • Use Better Distance Sensor/Better Braking System • Use Better Horn

  26. Ideal Car For Sophomore Design • OOPIC board: Sophomores will already know VB from CSE141 • Create their own frame on Campus: More educational than ordering a kit • Select motor based on requirements of car • H-Bridge instead of ESC: Cheaper • Separate IR emitter/detector

  27. Any Questions?

  28. Main Program Assembly Code START: jsr INIT STRAP: ldaa #ADMODE staa ATD0CTL5 SPIN: brclr ATD0STAT,SCF,SPIN jsr Distance jsr Track bra STRAP

  29. Distance Subroutine Assembly Code BRAKE: movb #$01, PTJ movb #$FF, HALTFLAG movb #$FF, PWMDTY2 movb #$FF, PWMDTY3 movb #$0C, PWMDTY0 movb #$A0, PWMDTY1 rts Distance: ldaa ADR02H movb #$00, HALTFLAG cmpa #$0E bhs BRAKE movb #$00, PTJ movb #$00, PWMDTY2 movb #$00, PWMDTY3 rts

  30. Track Subroutine Assembly Code Track: movb #$00, NOTRACKFLAG ldaa ADR00H ldab ADR01H cmpa #$A0 bhi ONLEFT cmpb #$A0 blo NOTONRIGHT jsr Vright rts NOTONRIGHT: jsr OUTSIDE rts ONLEFT: cmpb #$B0 bhi ONBOTH jsr Vleft rts ONBOTH: jsr STRAIGHT rts

  31. OUTSIDE: ldaa #ADMODE staa ATD1CTL5 SPIN2: brclr ATD1STAT, SCF, SPIN2 ldaa ADR10H cmpa #$90 blo NOTONL1 jsr L1 rts NOTONL1: ldaa ADR11H cmpa #$B0 blo NOTONR1 jsr R1 rts NOTONR1: ldaa ADR12H cmpa #$C0 blo NOTONL2 jsr L2 rts NOTONL2: ldaa ADR13H cmpa #$B0 blo NOTONR2 jsr R2 rts NOTONR2: ldaa ADR14H cmpa #$E0 blo NOTONL jsr L3 rts NOTONL3: ldaa ADR15H cmpa #$B0 blo NOTONTRACK jsr R3 rts NOTONR3: jsr NOTRACK rts Outside Subroutine Assembly Code

  32. Turning Assembly Code L1: movb #$07, PWMDTY4 movb #$D6, PWMDTY5 ldaa #$FF cmpa HALTFLAG beq L1RETURN movb #$0D, PWMDTY0 movb #$C8, PWMDTY1 movb #$18, PWMDTY3 movb #$00, PWMDTY2 L1RETURN: rts