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Perception. Question of the Day. Why is recognizing an object so easy for humans, but so difficult for computers?. Perception: attaching meaning to incoming sensory information. What is this?. Figure 2-1 Distal Stimuli , Proximal Stimuli , and Percepts.

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question of the day
Question of the Day
  • Why is recognizing an object so easy for humans, but so difficult for computers?
slide3
Perception:

attaching meaning to incoming sensory information

What is

this?

gestalt principles of perceptual organization
Gestalt principles of Perceptual Organization
  • http://www.aber.ac.uk
  • Proximity
gestalt principles of perceptual organization1
Gestalt principles of Perceptual Organization
  • Similarity
  • http://www.aber.ac.uk
gestalt principles of perceptual organization2

not this

what most people

would see

Gestalt principles of Perceptual Organization
  • Good continuation
  • http://www.aber.ac.uk
gestalt principles of perceptual organization3
Gestalt principles of Perceptual Organization
  • Closure

http://daphne.palomar.edu

figure 2 5
Figure 2-5

Gestalt principles of Perceptual Organization

slide14

Bottom-Up Processes

Problems with Template Matching

  • Large number of stored templates needed
  • How are new templates made?
  • An object can be “more or less” like the template
    • We can recognize many variations of a template
slide16

Bottom-Up Processes

Featural Analysis

features (“parts”) of a stimulus are recognized by feature detectors and added together to help us perceive an object

  • Lines or edges
  • Geons
  • Phonemes
  • Parts of a face (eyes, nose…)
bottom up processes
Bottom-Up Processes

Featural Analysis

Feature Properties

  • Detectors can respond at different intensities
  • Connections between detectors can have different strengths
  • It is possible to change what a detector will respond to
bottom up processes1
Bottom-Up Processes

Prototype Matching

slide21

Bottom-Up Processes

Prototype Matching

http://www.palm.com

top down processes
Top-Down Processes
  • Perceptual Learning
  • Change Blindness
  • Word Superiority Effect

1 2a 2b

Sad

Bad

OR

S

OR

OR

Sgf

Bgf

OR

bottom up and top down processing working together
Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing working together

a

t

Word Perception

  • Connectionist Model

Words

Bat

Letters

B

Fox

Bat

Fat

Features

(lines)

I

Rat

Cat

Input

slide25
Figure 2-24 (p. 73)Example of stimuli used in the PET scan study of processing words. See text for explanation.

Word Perception

  • Neuropsychological Perspective
slide26

Figure 2-30 Examples of how contour information influences recognition in persons with apperceptive agnosia. (A) Patients with apperceptive agnosia have difficulty recognizing this object as a chair because they cannot interpolate the missing contours. (B) Patients with apperceptive agnosia would have difficulty recognizing the chair when it is viewed from this unusual angle.

Agnosia

question of the day1
Question of the Day
  • Why is recognizing an object so easy for humans, but so difficult for computers?
    • Stimulus ambiguous
    • Objects overlap
    • Parts of objects may be hidden
    • Differences in lightness/darkness could be from more than one cause
outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Gestalt perceptual principles
  • Bottom-up processing
    • Template matching
    • Featural analysis
    • Prototype matching
  • Top-down processing
  • Agnosia