Vowels: Back Vowels Unit 6
Vowels Classification • The English pure vowels can be classified according to: • the height of the raised part of the tongue • the part of the tongue raised • the position of the lips
Pure Vowels 单元音 Front Vowels Central Vowels Back Vowels 单元音可按发音时舌头前、中、后哪一部分抬得最高而分成三类：一是前元音，二是中元音，三是后元音。
English Pure Vowels front central back high i: u: I ʊ mid-high з: e ɔ: ə mid-low ʌ ɒ ɑ: æ low Vowel Charts: English Pure Vowels
Back Vowels • /ɔ:/ /ɔ/ • /u:/ /u/ • /a:/ /ʌ/ • For all of them the tip of the tongue is withdrawn towards the soft palate. Lip-rounding plays an important part in producing all the back vowels except for /a:/ and /ʌ/ .
英语的6个后元音中有四个圆唇音，两个非圆唇音。英语的6个后元音中有四个圆唇音，两个非圆唇音。 从发音时口的开张程度看， /u:/近乎全合；/u/属半合； /ɔ:/在发音时牙床半开； /ʌ/在发音时牙床张开； /ɔ/近乎全开； /a:/也近乎全开； /ɔ/与/a:/在口的开张度上相似， 但/ɔ/是圆唇音，/a:/是非圆唇音； /a:/的舌位要比/ɔ/稍前一些。
Warm-up • Aunt parks her car in a large park, and it barks harsh noise. • Lots and lots of clocks and watches have gone wrong. • Walk and talk, talk and chalk, author often talks to soar. • Cook put some sugar on cookies, and took them into a cooker and cooked. • Who said the soup was too cool? • As a rule, the sky is blue in June.
/u:/ • 长元音。发音时，舌后部尽量抬起，舌位比/u/高。双唇收圆并突出。口型比/u/稍小。喉头肌肉紧张，牙床近乎全合。
Practice • no mood • bring food to school • prove to be true • to pull out a tooth • hard and fast rule (硬性规定) • forks and spoons • Italian noodle • a loose life
Practice • This is a once in blue moon chance. • You must get his approval before using the tool. • It’s very rude of you to treat the group like that. • I’d choose blue shoes to take to school to use if I were you. • Is it true that you’ll sue him for losing the blue jewel in the pool?
/u/ foot look should • 短元音。发音时舌后部抬起，舌身后缩，舌尖离开下齿，舌位比/u:/低。双唇收圆，稍突出。张口度比/u:/稍大。喉头肌肉松弛，牙床半合。
Practice • a cook-book • foot the bill • by hook or by crook (不择手段地) • put the hood on the hook • look good • push the butcher • took some sugar • dead wood (朽木)
Practice • He understood what the woman wanted. • How many cookies could a good cook cook every day? • I would if I could, and if I couldn’t, how could I? • The butcher stood aside on one foot when the good-looking cook shook sugar.
/u:/ & /u/ • 相同与区别: • 舌头后缩，并向软腭隆起； • /u/在发音时与/u:/一样，舌头后缩，但后度不及/u:/，舌面隆起但程度不及/u:/。另外，发/ u /音时，肌肉的紧张程度不及/u:/。 • 注意事项: • /u:/是舌位最高的后元音，因此舌头隆得比/u/音高。 • 发/u:/音时，舌头隆起部位比/u/更接近舌根。 • 发/u:/音时，双唇呈滚圆形；发/u/音时，双唇呈微圆形。
Pair Work • pool pull • fool full • cooed could • wooed wood • food foot • stool stood • boot book
/ɔ:/ port taught court • /ɔ:/是长元音。发音时舌后部比/ɔ/高，双唇收得更圆更小，并向前突出。
Practice • long talks • hot sauce • wrong calls • walk about the floor • fill in a form • go abroad • live like a lord • hold your jaw (别唠叨了)
Practice • Paul called from the hall that he had slipped on the floor and couldn’t get to the door. • They were fortunate enough to get there before four. • The new airport borders the city on the north. • I was bored to death by the boring job in the shop. • When the storm was coming, the ship had to call at a port.
/ɔ/ • /ɔ/短元音。发音时口张大，舌身尽量压低并后缩，双唇稍稍收圆。 • 特别提示：发音时可以先发/a:/音，再将双唇稍稍收圆、缩小即可。
Practice • a soft song • a popular opera • a famous psychologist • on a holiday • jolly foxy (特别狡猾) • eat a hot dog • do tip-top (干得很棒) • mop the floor • a model hospital
Practice • Flocking shoppers stopping and shopping. • In the box are orange socks with spots. • I just want a cup of coffee in a copper coffee pot. • This bottle is selling like hot cakes. • Bob has a lofty job and a lot of hobbies. • It’s so hot that I can’t concentrate on the job.
Phrases and Sentences on Dog • a lucky dog • a dead dog • a dog’s age • a sad dog • a sly dog • a dog’s life • a dog’s death • go to the dogs • Barking dogs do not bite. • Love me, love my dog. 废物 很长时间 易闯祸的人 暗地偷鸡摸狗的人 困苦的生活 潦倒而死 毁灭、破产
/ɔ:/ & /ɔ/ • 相同与区别: • /ɔ:/在发音时，舌头后缩牙床半开，双唇呈滚圆形。 • /ɔ/是在发舌面尽量压低和往后靠，牙床近乎全开，嘴唇呈微圆形。 • 注意事项: • 两者的区别不仅在于发音时间的长短方面，更在于口型语发音方法的区别。发/ɔ/时，上下唇、齿之间的距离略大于/ɔ:/，但小于/a:/，介于两者之间。
Pair Work • port pot • taught tot • court cot • cork cock • sword sod • short shot • sport spot • awed odd • chalk chock • naught not
/a:/ • 长元音。发音时口张大，是所有英语音素中张口度最大的。舌身压低后缩，后舌稍稍隆起，舌尖离开下齿，口张大，不圆唇，喉头肌肉松弛。汉语拼音的(a), 发音时舌尖抵下齿，舌中部抬起。
a large parcel after the party far from being smart do harm to the heart very hard to start the car marble-hearted have the last laugh pass the buck (推卸责任) Practice
Farmer Barnes is a hard man for a bargain, but he isn’t hard-hearted. Ask father to stop arguing with aunt Margaret about the party in March last year. What she has done is far from the mark. The dog keeps barking in the dark. After class Mark will go to the garden. Practice
/ ʌ/ cut hut duck • 短元音。发音时舌尖和舌端两侧轻触下齿，整个舌 身在口腔中处于低平状态,仅舌中部稍稍抬起；双唇向两边伸张，稍扁，牙床半开，张口度比/ə/略大，喉头肌肉较紧张。
some honey a cup of punch a tough gun a funny couple much money in the mud in the cup hurry up Practice
The bus is coming . Well begun is half done. A bug tugged at the rug. Suddenly, he plucked up courage and rushed into the study, only to discover a duck clucking under his desk. Mother’s country cousins are such dull company but her younger brother and his sons are such fun. Practice
/a:/ & /ʌ/ • 相同与区别: • 发/a:/音时，口要尽量张大，张开度比/ʌ/大；牙床全开，双唇中常，舌尖离开下齿，舌位放到最低点，同时向后缩，但后度不及/ɔ/。 • /ʌ/不同于其它后元音。与其说它是后元音，还不如说它是中元音。发/ʌ/音时，舌头在口腔里平放着，舌面中部略抬起，牙床半开位舌位比中元音/ɔ:/要低，双唇中常，肌肉松驰。
cart cut cot lark luck lock heart hut hot dark duck dock carp cup cop guard gut god Practice
Thank you! See you next time!