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Green, neoliberal and dialogical planning ideas in compact city development:. How are values and ideological conflicts reflected in types of planning documents? Tore Sager, NTNU. Purpose and Research Question.

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green neoliberal and dialogical planning ideas in compact city development

Green, neoliberal and dialogical planning ideas in compact city development:

How are values and ideological conflicts reflected in types of planning documents?

Tore Sager, NTNU

purpose and research question
Purpose and Research Question
  • Purpose:To study the ideological direction in which plans for a more compact city are moving society.
  • RQ: Which indications of neoliberalism, sustainability and deliberative democracy are found in the planning of compact city development?
procedural values in cpt
Procedural Values in CPT
  • Empathy, broad-mindedness, being a good listener, aiming to understand others’ point of view.
  • Empowerment, striving for autonomy and independence in the performance of daily tasks.
  • Equality of moral worth, equal opportunities for communicative action across race, sex, and religion; that is, respect for diversity.
  • Fairness,serving people according to criteria of need and communicative difficulties rather than power, money, and social status.
  • Honesty, sincerity and trustworthiness, abstaining from deception and manipulation.
  • Inclusiveness, hospitality in the sense of welcoming people with differing sets of values and attitudes into planning processes and other arenas of social and political life.
  • Responsiveness to other parties in the planning process and to the general public, willingness to engage in deliberation and debate, and to give reasons why one holds a view.
  • Self-government, defending every citizen’s right to influence collective decisions in matters that concern them.
substantive value principles in cpt 1
Substantive Value Principles in CPT: 1
  • The plan should accommodate diverse lifestyles and not hinder legitimate groups from living in accordance with their self-chosen identity. For example, cultural minorities should find places in the city which are fit for their rituals and ways of socializing. (Empathy)
  • The plan should observe the principles of universal design, as this results in accessibility – for example, to basic public and private services – and thus independence and autonomy for a larger share of the population (Empowerment)
  • The plan should respect what is culturally essential to affected groups, such as their identity-shaping heritage and their conception of that which is sacred. (Equality of moral worth)
  • The plan should hold something for each affected group, if not in the main physical manifestation of its purpose, then in the form of compensation. Especially, the situation of underprivileged groups should not be aggravated. (Fairness)
substantive value principles in cpt 2
Substantive Value Principles in CPT: 2
  • The plan should correspond to the information and the planner intentions conveyed to the participating parties throughout the planning process. The plan should not give reason to suspect previously hidden agendas. (Honesty)
  • The plan should promote wide participation in public life and the labour market. The plan should make it easy for people to meet and interact in parks, playgrounds and other places for rest, recreation and voluntary activities (Inclusiveness)
  • The plan, even when designed contrary to the wishes of a particular group, should include elements signalling to this group that it has been listened to. At least some details of the plan should be fashioned to accommodate the needs of protesting groups. (Responsiveness)
  • Widely accepted solutions negotiated in the communication process (especially consensus proposals) should be incorporated in the final plan, possibly with modifications catering for the interests of people who may not be part of a local consensus; for example, tax payers in general and future generations. (Self-government)
values embedded in neoliberalism
Values embedded in Neoliberalism
  • Individualism promoting self-reliance, independence, and responsibility for one’s own well-being.
  • Entrepreneurialism, meaning management of one’s own life through risk and initiative in competitive markets.
  • Accountability as support for the rule of law and accepted standards of conduct, for example, budget discipline.
  • Prosperity through minimization of waste, that is, efficient use of labour, capital, and natural resources.
  • Reward for individual effort through impersonal market mechanisms rather than bureaucratic regulations.
  • Freedom of choice resulting from competitiveness and from institutions, impartial authority, and social recognition allowing market entry and choice.
neoliberal urban policies 1
Neoliberal Urban Policies: 1

Urban economic development

  • City marketing
  • Urban development by attracting the ‘creative class’
  • Economic development incentives
  • Competitive bidding

Infrastructure provision

  • Public-private partnerships
  • Private sector involvement in financing and operating transport infrastructure
  • Private sector involvement in procuring water
neoliberal urban policies 2
Neoliberal Urban Policies: 2

Management of commercial areas

  • Business-friendly zones and flexible zoning
  • Property-led urban regeneration
  • Privatization of public space and sales-boosting exclusion

Housing and neighbourhood renewal

  • Liberalization of housing markets
  • Gentrification
  • Privately governed and secured neighbourhoods
  • Quangos organizing market-oriented urban development
green values
Green Values
  • Ecological wisdom, recognizing that humans are part of nature and not separate from it, and acknowledging the need for ecological balance.
  • Inter-generational fairness aiming to utilize resources in such a way that future generations will benefit rather than suffer, and safely dispose of or “unmake” the waste created by our generation.
  • Intra-generational fairness that recognizes the ignored, protects the vulnerable, serves those who suffer, and enables them to develop their capacities and to pursue their aspirations.
  • Personal and global responsibility, aiming to improve personal well-being, while at the same time pursuing the common good and joining with others to foster peace, economic justice, and the health of the planet.
  • Stewardship, as the responsible use and management of resources and nature through conservation and other practices that address the social challenges of humanity within the carrying capacity of natural systems.
green urban policies 1
Green Urban Policies: 1
  • Urban intensification and high density, mixed-use development to avoid sprawl and superfluous driving.
  • The central city and sub-centres emphasize access and circulation by green modes of transport, and absorb a high proportion of employment and residential growth.
  • Infrastructure and facilities for environmentally friendly vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians.
  • Toll schemes and regulation of street use and parking that discourage private cars and favour public transport.
  • Restrictions on energy use and car parking in new housing projects.
green urban policies 2
Green Urban Policies: 2
  • Energy-efficient heating (district heating).
  • Green lungs, parks, and planting.
  • Preservation of farmland, recreation areas, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas.
  • Hazard mitigation and noise protection.
  • Clean-up or removal of polluted soil before building on a site.
  • Waste collection systems designed for pre-separation at source, recycling and recovery.
document types cases
Document Types Cases
  • Municipal plan: Land-use part (Planning programme)
  • Municipal plan: Social part
  • Municipal sector plan (area or theme)
  • Area development plan
  • Detailed development plan
  • Additional documents?
  • Trondheim: NedreElvehavn
  • Additional cases? Trh: Lade-LeangenTrh: Sluppen- Tempe
sustainability examples
Sustainability, examples

Municipal plan

Development plan

Densification, build the city inwards

Developments to support the transit arc

Implement the environmental package for transport

Internal network for cyclists and pedestrians, and connections to external network

Parking space for a limited number of cars

Noise-deflection wall required

Green patches and planting

inclusion and participation examples
Inclusion and Participation, examples

Municipal plan

Development plan

Aiming for an including and diverse city

The entire urban society should be accessible to all

Developing the urban neighbourhoods in co-operation with the local residents

At least 50% of the flats should have universal design

A mix of different kinds of residents is aimed for

Parking for handicapped people is required

Preserve identity-forming buildings and memorials of the past

neoliberalism examples
Neoliberalism, examples

Municipal plan

Development plan

Organized innovation based on public institutions, such as university and hospital (public-private co-operation)

Trh as an internationally recognized city of technology and learning (city marketing)

Norway’s most attractive city for students and researchers (attracting the creative class)

Very few indications of neoliberalism.

How to interpret this?

What do I need to do besides studying the plans?