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French clitics and cognition. Dick Hudson Oxford, November 2012. Plan. Cognition in Word Grammar Clitics in Word Grammar French clitics Conclusions. 1. Cognition in Word Grammar. Language is part of cognition both competence and performance. All of general ability is available

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french clitics and cognition

French clitics and cognition

Dick Hudson

Oxford, November 2012

slide2
Plan
  • Cognition in Word Grammar
  • Clitics in Word Grammar
  • French clitics
  • Conclusions
1 cognition in word grammar
1. Cognition in Word Grammar
  • Language is part of cognition
    • both competence and performance.
  • All of general ability is available
    • so let's assume language can use it all.
  • Maybe language needs nothing else?
    • This is a question for research.
  • So what does general cognition offer?
general cognition
General cognition

cat

  • A variety of units:
    • concepts, e.g. 'cat'
    • percepts, e.g. cat purring
    • motor-programs, e.g. how to stroke
    • feelings, e.g. liking for cats
  • A network structure
    • linking units
    • defining concepts
networks and activation
Networks and activation
  • The brain is a 'neural' network
    • which carries activation.
  • The mind is a 'mental' network
    • built on the neural network
    • and therefore affected by activation.
  • But the mental network has special properties too.
the mental network
The mental network

flier

  • Nodes are classified in 'is-a' hierarchies
  • Properties are links to other nodes.
  • All links are classified.
  • These hierarchies allow generalisations
    • so a token X inherits properties by default

flying

bird

is-a

robin

X

default inheritance

1

Default inheritance

flier

#

flying

bird

  • Penguins are birds.
  • A typical bird flies.
    • flying is expected
    • quantity (#) = 1
  • But for penguins, there's no flying
    • # = 0
    • i.e. They don't fly.
  • So X doesn't fly.

0

#

penguin

0

#

X

types of link in cognitive networks
Types of link in cognitive networks
  • Basic (?innate?) links
    • is-a (classification)
    • quantity (how many? true/false?)
    • identity (binding – more later)
    • argument, value
  • Relational concepts
    • in an is-a hierarchy
    • e.g. 'flier' is-a 'actor'

argument

value

#

=

actor

flier

binding
Binding
  • To 'find' a node, bind it to another one.
  • Q. Who is John?

A. He's the cook.

  • Follows activation:
    • choose the most active candidate.

=

?

John

cook

limitless cognitive networks
Limitless cognitive networks
  • Limitless creation of relations as needed
    • e.g. for kinship
  • Limitless creation of properties as needed
    • e.g. for people
  • Limitless exceptionality as needed
    • e.g. for birds
  • Limitless binding as needed
2 clitics in word grammar
2. Clitics in Word Grammar

form

  • By default, a word is realized by a word-form.
  • But a clitic is realized by an affix.
  • Default inheritance allows this.

realization

word-form

word

clitic

affix

default morphology
Default morphology

realization

  • Base is-a realization.
  • Top is-a realization.
    • Top is fully inflected.
  • By default, Base = Top.
  • But for inflections:
    • Top is a 'variant' of Base.

top

word

word-form

base

variant

inflection

affixes and hosts

second part

s-variant

Affixes and hosts

1

'he/she will be loved'

{ }

  • By default, an affix has a host
    • the wordform it defines.
  • Every affix has a position within its host
    • at least as prefix or suffix
    • but the position may be defined by a template
    • e.g. Latin am-a-b-i-t-ur

host

{ }

{s}

2

fourth part

{ }

1

{ }

2

{ }

3

{ }

{ }

4

5

host

1 2 3 4 5 6

{ }

{ur}

6

clitics and hostforms
Clitics and hostforms

top

  • A clitic is fully realized by an affix.
  • The affix needs a host.
  • So the host is a special 'hostform'.
  • Maybe this inherits a template structure from inflections?
    • special clitics always combine with complex morphology?

clitic

affix

part

host

e.g. third part

hostform

wordform

john is s late
John is/'s late.

JOHN

BE,3sg

LATE

JOHN

BE,3sg,

clitic

LATE

realization

realization

{late}

{i-z}

{John}

{late}

{z}

{John}

host

part 1

Bound to realization of previous word.

part 2

{John-z}

hostform

the entry for z
The entry for {z}

form

  • {z} is-a suffix.
  • So it has a host.
  • Its host is-a hostform
  • whose part2 it is
  • and part1is bound to the preceding wordform.

suffix

hostform

host

{z}

2

1

next

=

summary of apparatus
Summary of apparatus
  • Rich relations
    • realization
    • host
    • part 1/2/…
  • Forms
    • hostforms
  • Default inheritance
  • Activation
  • Binding
3 french clitics

clitics underlined

3. French clitics
  • Je ne me les y ai pas mis.

I not for-me them there have not put.

  • Clitics combine in an order which is
    • rigidly fixed
    • different from full NPs:
      • J'ai mis les lettres sur la table.

I have put the letters on the table

the challenges of french clitics
The challenges of French clitics

A. Positive imperatives: Verb + clitics.

Donnez-le-moi! (*Me le donnez!) "Give it to me!"

B. Only one per column.

*Je te me présenterai. "I'll introduce myself to you"

C. *3 + 5 (*1/2/ref + 3 ind)

*Je me lui présenterai."I'll introduce myself to her."

D. and …

clitic climbing

aux

Clitic climbing
  • Je le lui donne. I give him it.
  • Je ai donné. I have given him it.

le lui

'make'

  • Je te ferai manger.I'll make you eat it.

le

'let', 'send' or perception

  • Je te laisserai le manger.I'll let you eat it.

Or …

le

  • Je te laisserai manger.I'll let you eat it.
classifying clitics
Classifying clitics
  • Clitics are classified.
    • 'subj', 'neg', etc.
  • One item per class.
  • '1/2/ref' is-a 'obj'
    • so *me lui
    • and Donnez-le-moi
    • = Donnez-le-lui

clitic

subj

en

ne

y

obj

3dir

1/2/ref

adding hostforms
Adding hostforms
  • Each clitic brings its own hostform.
  • Each clitic class has a position.
  • Each verb also has its own hostform.
  • Hostforms bind together.

imperative

3dir

<4

host

4

host

hostform

hostform

=

?

classifying hostforms

Give it to me!

Classifying hostforms
  • Positive imperatives have ordinary order.
  • Compare:
    • Donnez-le-moi
    • Donnez le livre à Jean!
  • But other verbs are different…

imperative

y

en

en

obj

3dir

3dir

<4

host

6

4

5

7

hostform1

hostform2

Give the book to John!

the paradoxes
The paradoxes
  • Positive imperatives are exceptional verbs,
    • but they have default hostforms.
    • Why?
  • Order shows function (direct/indirect) in hostform1,
    • but person in hostform2.
    • Why?

imperative

verb

<4

host

>7

host

hostform1

hostform2

4

5

7

1

3

2

obj

3dir

en

neg

1/2/ref

subj

why positive imperatives
Why positive imperatives?

Why do positive imperatives have default order?

  • Because they don't include subjects and negatives.
  • subjects contrast before/after verb.
  • negatives contrast ne ….. pas.
  • So subj and neg drag hostword1 before the verb.
why function person
Why function > person?
  • Pos imperatives: Donnez-le-moi/lui!
    • follows non-clitic order: Donnez le livreà Jean!
  • Others: Il mele donne ~ Il lelui donne
    • follows semantic link to subject:
      • reflexive > non-reflexive
    • also animacy hierarchy:
      • 1 > 2 > 3
how do clitics climb
How do clitics climb?

=

hf

hf

  • Each clitic brings a hostform.
  • But so does each clitic-available verb.
  • Then the various hostforms merge.

host

host

Je les mange.

I them eat

=

hf

hf

host

host

Je les fais manger.

I them make eat

binding again
Binding again

=

  • Binding in parsing,
  • and in semantics,
  • and in clitic climbing.

referent

referent

He hurt himself.

=

subj

=

host

host

Je les ai mangés.

4 conclusions
4.Conclusions
  • French clitics require only:
    • default inheritance
    • binding
    • unlimited relations
  • All these tools are available in general cognition.
  • So clitics are ordinary cognition.
thank you
Thank you
  • This show is available at

www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/dick/talks.htm