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Learning and Cognition. Imagery 17 August 200 6. Dual Coding Theory (Paivio, 1965). String Tree Coffee Dress Shoe House Pencil Garden. Wheat Potato Woman River Chair Magazine Flower Star. Idea Moment Soul Opinion Effort Freedom Series Health. Truth Duty Fate Theory

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learning and cognition

Learning and Cognition

Imagery

17 August 2006

dual coding theory paivio 1965
Dual Coding Theory(Paivio, 1965)

String

Tree

Coffee

Dress

Shoe

House

Pencil

Garden

Wheat

Potato

Woman

River

Chair

Magazine

Flower

Star

Idea

Moment

Soul

Opinion

Effort

Freedom

Series

Health

Truth

Duty

Fate

Theory

Event

Fact

Virtue

History

dual coding theory paivio 19651
Dual Coding Theory(Paivio, 1965)

Imagery Ratings

4.70

2.90

Concrete Words

Abstract Words

slide4

Paired Associate Learning Task

pencil – garden

string – tree

woman – river

shoe – house

flower – star

dress – coffee

chair – magazine

wheat – potato

slide5

Paired Associate Learning Task

event – fact

effort – freedom

truth – duty

virtue – history

series – health

idea – moment

soul – opinion

fate – theory

paired associate learning paivio 1965
Paired Associate Learning(Paivio, 1965)

Proportion Correct

0.71

0.38

Concrete Words

Abstract Words

dual coding theory
Dual Coding Theory

Verbal

code

Visual

code

Concrete Words

Verbal

code

Abstract Words

imagery mnemonics
Imagery Mnemonics
  • Method of loci
  • Pegword mnemonic
  • Keyword technique
method of loci
Method of Loci

Mental Imagery

Item

Familiar

location

pegword mnemonic
Pegword Mnemonic

Mental Imagery

Item

Pegword

rhyme
Rhyme

One is a bun

Two is a shoe

Three is a tree

Four is a door

Five is a hive

Six is sticks

Seven is heaven

Eight is a gate

Nine is wine

Ten is a hen

pegword mnemonic1
Pegword Mnemonic

Item

Sailboat

Cat

Violin

Pegword

Bun

Shoe

Tree

imagery mnemonics1
Imagery Mnemonics

Effectiveness

  • Type of stimulus material

Concrete

  • Kind of images formed

Interacting ( bizarre)

interacting images bower 1970
Interacting Images(Bower, 1970)
  • Paired associate learning task

e.g. rock – bottle, goat – pipe, sofa – elephant, ...

  • Instructions
    • Rote rehearsal
    • Interactive imagery
    • Separation imagery
interacting images
Interacting Images

Prop. Correct Recall

bizarre images
Bizarre Images

Prop. Correct Recall

0.74

0.36

0.54

0.56

Interacting Pictures

Non-interacting Pictures

Bizarre Pictures

Non-bizarre Pictures

application
Application
  • Foreign language vocabulary learning

Paired associate learning task

(Foreign word – English translation)

  • Keyword technique
    • Associate foreign word with keyword
    • Form image of keyword interacting with English translation

e.g. Spanish (PATO – pot – DUCK)

application1
Application

A good keyword

  • Sounds as much as possible like part of the foreign word
  • Is different from the other keywords
  • Easily forms an interactive image with the English translation
application atkinson raugh 1975
Application(Atkinson & Raugh, 1975)

Russian Keyword Translation

VNIMANIE [pneumonia] ATTENTION

STRANA [straw man] COUNTRY

GORA [garage] MOUNTAIN

OSEN [ocean] AUTUMN

SEVER [saviour] NORTH

DYM [dim] SMOKE

POEZD [poised] TRAIN

application2
Application

% Correct

Translations

46

72

Control

Keyword

Technique