The Passive Voice ( By C. Alpízar N.) http://www.e-grammar.org/passive-voice/.
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CharacteristicsItisused in formal (academic, scientific) readings and writings. Itisrarelyused in oral activities. It can beused, butitisnot as common as in readingsor formal writings.
Components1. a transitive verb (allows a direct object)2. a subject3. a direct object (or a “by” agent)4. the preposition “by” (not all the time)5. the verb “be” as an auxiliary6. a past participle
Simple Present ActiveJohnwritesarticlesfor La Nación everyday.John = subjectwrites = transitiveverbarticles = directobject
Simple PresentPassiveArticlesare writtenby John everydayfor La Nación.Articles = newsubjectarewritten = auxiliary “be” in present + pastparticipleby John = “Byagent” (notalwaysnecessary / present in a sentence)
On-line ExercisesSimple Present Passivehttp://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive/exercises?simple-presenthttp://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/active_passive/sentences_simple_present.htm
Simple PastPassiveIdomeneowascomposedby Mozart in 1773. Idomeneo = newsubjectwascomposed = auxiliary “be” in past + pastparticipleby Mozart = “Byagent” (notalwaysnecessary / present in a sentence)
On-line ExercisesSimple Past Passivehttp://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive/exercises?simple-pasthttp://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/active_passive/sentences_simple_past.htm
PresentContinuous ActiveResearchersare launching (*) a new rockettoday. Researchers= subjectare launching= transitiveverba new rocket= directobject (*) initiate
PresentContinuousPassiveA new rocketisbeinglaunchedbyresearcherstoday. A new rocket= newsubjectisbeinglaunched= auxiliary “be” in present (is) + auxiliary “be” in presentcontinuous (being) + pastparticiplebyresearchers= “Byagent” (notalwaysnecessary / present in a sentence)
Important NoteResearchersare launchinga new rockettoday. = plural subject A new rocketisbeinglaunchedbyresearcherstoday. = singular subject
On-line ExercisesPresent Continuous Passivehttp://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive/exercises?present-progressivehttp://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=4945
PresentPerfect ActiveScientistshaveimprovedtechnologyin thelastcentury. Scientists= subjecthaveimproved= transitiveverbtechnology= directobject
PresentPerfectPassiveTechnologyhas beenimprovedbyScientistsin thelastcentury. Technology= newsubject has beenimproved= auxiliary “has” + pastparticiple of “be” (been) + anotherpastparticiplebyresearchers= “Byagent” (notalwaysnecessary / present in a sentence)
Important NoteScientistshaveimprovedtechnologyin thelastcentury. = plural subjectTechnologyhas beenimprovedbyScientistsin thelastcentury. = singular subject
On-line ExercisesPresent Perfect Passivehttp://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive/exercises?present-perfecthttp://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=4946
Simple Future ActivePeoplewilldrinkCoca Cola in the 21st century. People= subjectwilldrink= transitiveverb Coca Cola = directobject
Simple FuturePassiveCoca Cola willbedrunkbypeoplein the 21st century. Coca Cola = newsubjectwillbedrunk= auxiliary “will” + auxiliary-infinitive “be” + pastparticipletheverbbypeople= “Byagent” (notalwaysnecessary / present in a sentence)
Important NotePeoplewilldrinkCoca Cola in the 21st century. = plural subject Coca Cola willbedrunkbypeoplein the 21st century. = singular subject
Modals and Active Voice1. Astronauts (subject) couldlaunch(modal auxiliary + transitiveverb)spacestations(directobject)2. Humanity (subject) shouldstart(modal auxiliary + transitiveverb)spacecolonies(directobject) 3. Scientists (subject) willperfect(modal auxiliary + transitiveverb)thenecessarytechnology(directobject) soon.
Modals and PassiveVoice1. Spacestations(new subject) couldbelaunched(modal auxiliary + auxiliary “be” + pastparticiple) byAstronauts(“by” agent)2. Spacecolonies(new subject) shouldbestarted(modal auxiliary + auxiliary “be” + pastparticiple) byHumanity(“by” agent) 3. Thenecessarytechnology(new subject) willbeperfected(modal auxiliary + auxiliary “be” + pastparticiple) byScientists(“by” agent)
On-line ExercisesModal Auxiliaries and Passive Voicehttp://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Green%20Level/G8%20Modal%20Passive.htmlhttp://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive/exercises?05
On-line ExercisesPassive Voice – Reviewhttp://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/passiv.htmhttp://www.myenglishgrammar.com/exercise-15-passive-voice.htmlhttp://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=197
On-line ExercisesActive VS Passive Voice http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/active_passive/active_or_passive.htmhttp://a4esl.org/q/h/vm/active-passive.htmlhttp://www.englishgrammar.org/active-passive-voice-exercise-ii/