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HKU SBA Seminar Series 2008 – 2009 . Moving Students Forward via Interactive Assessment The Impact of IA on Student Learning, Challenges Teachers Face Practising IA and the Way Ahead. Nicole Tavares & Liz Hamp-Lyons Faculty of Education The University of Hong Kong. The Study.

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HKU SBA Seminar Series 2008 – 2009

Moving Students Forward via Interactive AssessmentThe Impact of IA on Student Learning, Challenges Teachers Face Practising IA and the Way Ahead

Nicole Tavares & Liz Hamp-Lyons

Faculty of Education

The University of Hong Kong

the study
The Study
  • Part of a much larger study to investigate what strategies for capacity-building are needed to help assessment-for-learning “take” in the junior secondary curriculum
  • 17 teachers in 7 schools, Grades 1 – 3
  • Teacher action research, followed with focus group interviews with teachers and students

http://web.hku.hk/~sbapro/nov24.html

the theory
The Theory
  • closely linked to work we have been doing with teachers of secondary-age learners in Hong Kong
    • in which we have been providing professional development to support the introduction of an innovative, teacher-delivered assessment drawing on the work of Black & Wiliam and the London Reform Group in assessment for learning.
five key strategies of a f l
Five key strategies of AfL
  • Engineering effective classroom discussions
  • Providing feedback that moves learners forward
  • Sharing learning intentions and success criteria with learners
  • Activating students as owners of their own learning
  • Activating students as learning resources for one another
        • Dylan Wiliam, “Assessment for learning: Putting it into practice”, Scottish Education Festival 2005
focus on one afl strategy
Focus on one AfL strategy
  • Engineering effective classroom discussions
  • Providing feedback that moves learners forward
  • Sharing learning intentions and success criteria with learners
  • Activating students as owners of their own learning
  • Activating students as learning resources for one another
moving learners forward
Moving learners forward

The Zone of Proximal Development

  • According to Vygotsky, all learning occurs in a range at and a little above the learner’s current level of knowledge and skill: this is the ‘zone’ in which development can be stimulated to occur – the zone of ‘proximal’ development.
  • The corollary of this is that learning will not occur if the distance between the learner’s current level and the level at which the teaching is pitched is too high.
the zpd in applied linguistics
The ZPD in applied linguistics
  • Vygotsky’s theory has been implemented as dynamic assessment in special education, and more recently by applied linguists, particularly Lantolf and Poehner (2004), Poehner and Lantolf (2005) and Poehner (2008).
the zpd in language education
The ZPD in language education
  • However, we see the concept of the ZPD as having more in common with work in assessment with children who are developing normally, for example by Stiggins (e.g., 1998) in educative assessment, and by Wiggins (e.g., 2004) on assessment as feedback.
zpd and interactive assessment
ZPD and interactive assessment
  • Because the context in which we have been working is classroom-based and frequently involves groups in collaborative talk or in peer response to classmates, we describe what we are building as interactive assessment.
what is interactive assessment
What is Interactive Assessment?
  • OUR CONTEXT
  • A very clear and carefully developed system of assessment for learning which emphasises formative uses of an eventual summative assessment:
    • Teachers engage students with thinking about their learning during the assessment process;
    • Assessment is one stage of the teaching, learning and assessing cycle in the classroom;
    • Every assessment is therefore for feedforward as well as for feedback.
interactive assessment
Interactive Assessment
  • requires that teacher-assessors intervene during learners’ spoken performance in order to:
    • scaffold and support learners in producing an assessable performance that they know they are capable of in everyday settings;
    • stimulate and challenge them to reach a higher-level performance than that being produced – to reach for a performance just at the edge of their ability.
teachers moving forward
Teachers moving forward
  • This new paradigm in assessment calls for a re-conceptualisation of the teacher’s role and strategy use as an assessor in the classroom-based assessment of normal language development and proficiency in school-aged children.
  • In our context these are Chinese-speaking children in English language classes.
  • BUT the theory and much of the practice can be applied across subjects.
teachers moving forward challenges faced
Teachers moving forward:Challenges faced

Summative

Formative + Summative

Interactive

Teacher-as-Mediator …………………….……  

Teacher-as-Assessor

Non-Intervention

InterruptionIntervention

Positive Intervention  

by the Teacher

by Students

Post-Task Feedback

Post-Task Feedback

Concurrent Feedback

Feedback for Feeding Forward …………  

Evaluative Feedback

Informational Feedback

understanding mediated assistance
Understanding Mediated Assistance

Language to Organise Discourse?

Focus:

Quality of Ideas

(Textual) Structure

Gesturing:

X

… …

Smiling/Nodding

Wait Time:

… …

Too little

Too much

Questioning: Back-channelling, Probing & Prompting

Questioning:

Guide/Template

Spontaneous

Contextualised

an esl teacher learning to assess interactively in an individual presentation context
An ESL Teacher Learning to Assess Interactivelyin an ‘Individual Presentation’ Context
using ia strategies
Using IA Strategies

Mediationandsupportvia …

  • Guided Questioning
  • Graduated Probes and Prompts
  • Responsive Back-Channelling
  • Strategic Use of Wait Time
  • Non-Verbal Cues
  • ……
slide18

PositiveTeaching,

Learning & Assessment

Attitude

Right Degree of Challenge

for the High-Ability Group?

Students' Enhanced Readiness

to Express Themselves & Better Performance

Confidence Building

ReducedHelplessness

among

Low-Achievers

Collaborative & Supportive Culture

Communicative

ELT Environment

Increased Support

for Average Students

Teacherand Students

as

Engaged

Co-Participants

enhancing mediated assistance
Enhancing Mediated Assistance

Language Development: Accuracy?

Language to Organise Discourse?

Focus:

Quality of Ideas

(Textual) Structure

Helpfulness & Correctiveness?

Gesturing:

X

… …

Smiling/Nodding

Responsive to Learner Needs?

Wait Time:

… …

Too little

Too much

Range vs Staging of Questions?

Questioning: Back-channelling, Probing & Prompting

Just-in-Time Questioning?

Questioning:

Guide/Template

Spontaneous

Contextualised

major challenges recommendations 1
Major Challenges & Recommendations – 1

Nurturing Students’ Language Development

1a) Teacher Modelling

1b) Gesturing

- ‘Thumbs-up’ Strategy

1c) Flash / Cue Cards // Slips

-

-

he OR she?

major challenges recommendations 2
Major Challenges & Recommendations – 2

Handling Large Class Size & Nurturing Students’ Language Development

2) Beginning with mini speaking tasks

Ss/C as Attentive Observers & Thinkers; T as IA Model & Facilitator

Ss/C as Participants; Focusing on more ‘controllable’ aspects

Effective implementation of a range of formative assessment approaches in classrooms school-wide could be‘as much as 20 times more cost-effective than class-size reduction programs’ (Wiliam, 2007)

–ed

T

P

Ss as Peer Evaluators in Multiple Groupings

major challenges recommendations 3
Major Challenges & Recommendations – 3

3) Ongoing Teacher Professional Development

a) AfL principles and practice

b) SBA as an integral part of the curriculum

c) IA and error-correction strategies

d) Pedagogical content knowledge

e) Catering for learner diversity

f) Teaching skills

– Just-in-time questioning, multiple groupings, …

g) … …

Teachers’ Language Awareness & Pedagogical Expertise

major challenges recommendations 4
Major Challenges & Recommendations – 4

4)

a) Continuous practice and reflection

b) Receptiveness and responsiveness to students’ feedback and needs

Teachers at a personal level

slide24
2009 Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination English Language Handbook for the School-Based Assessment Component (2007, p. 26)
slide25
2009 Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination English Language Handbook for the School-Based Assessment Component (2007, p. 31)