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Medical Biotech Presentation“NANOTECHNOLOGY” HaseebNisar 12-10477
What if Doctors could reach out and correct diseases at the macromolecular level. Nanotechnology provide tools to help bring that dream closer to reality
Medicine is the Knowledge and practice of maintaining and restoring health while nanoscience is essentially a new perspective on science and technology with new possibilities opened by vastly more powerful tools for examination and manipulation of matter on the sub-micron scale. • In future Nanotechnology will prove to be a boom in medical research and practice. • The NIH defines nanomedicine as the highly specific application of nanotechnology to medical intervention at the molecular scale for curing disease or repairing damaged tissues, such as bone , muscle or nerve.
The NIH has developed a series of road maps . The spirit of these proposals has been summed up in the following quotation from NIH: “ What if doctors could search out and destroy the very first cancer cells that would otherwise have caused a tumor to develop in the body? What if a broken part of a cell could be removed & replaced with a miniature biological machine? What if pumps the size of molecules could be implanted to deliver life saving medicines precisely when & where they are needed? These scenarios may sound unbelievable, but they are the long term goals of NIH Road map’s. Nanomedicine initiative that we anticipate will yield medical benefits as early as 10 years from now”.
Emerging medical nanoscience is targeted to impact the following areas → New medical materials for cell growth scaffolding and tissue repair. → Enhancement of diagnosis and imaging. → Enhancement of drug delivery. → Understanding and control over biomolecular mechanism. → Discovery of properties and medical effects of smaller units of life and nanoparticles.
Some areas of medical care that will benefit from the above nanoscience advances are → Plastic surgery and wound healing using nanogels and nanoengineering scaffolding materials. → Improved healing and bone fractures using nano patterned porous implants. → Reduction of MRI interaction with surgical and sensor probes by nanoengineering coatings. → Drug delivery across the blood brain barrier with the smart nanoparticles. → Selective image enhancement of diseased cells with antibody coated nanoparticles.
First 8 NIH Nonomedicinecentres and their research areas • Nonomedicine centre for Mechanical Biology at Columbia university. • UCSF/UCB centre for engineering cellular control systems. • National Centre for design of BiomimiticNanoconductor at University of Illinois . • Centre for protein folding machinery at Baylor college medicine with Stanford university. • Nanomedicine development centre for the optical control of the Biological function at University of California Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
6) The centre for systemic control of Cyto-networks at UCLA. 7) Nanomotor Drug delivery centre at Purdue university. 8) Nanomedicine centre for nucleoprotein machines at Georgia Tech with Emory university.
Nanoparticle for Medical Imaging • Nanoparticle have been used as contrast & image enhancement agents for X-Ray and computed tomography image. Conventional image contrast agents are molecules such as iodinated benzoic acid derivatives, hence risk factors & side effects associated with intravenous iodine injection. • Nanoparticles of inert metals such as gold can be deposited into nanoscale mold templates of silicon, carbon, alumina or other material with nanosizepores or wells.
Organic compounds with sulphide (-S-H) groups (thiols) can be used to coat gold particles with uniform organic monolayers. • Coatings & RF filters made from nanoengineered particles can reduce image artifacts &enhance the visibilty of many biomedical devices, both implantable and interventional, that today are difficult to image due to eddy currents and other problems that interface with MRI fields. • Nanoshell particles with optical resonances in the infrared have been functionalized and used to enhanced imaging of cancer cells. These shells can also destroy the cancer cells by absorbing infrared light at high frequency.
Nanoparticles for targeting cancer cells • Ferromagnetic nanoparticles can be functionalized with antibodies, allowing cancer cells to be separated out of tissue samples such as blood & concentrated many fold for diagnostic analysis. • The ferrofluids concentrate the drugs in the area of interest by means of magnetic fields. The drug then desorbs from the ferrofluid and acts against the tumor. • Magnetic particle separations can also be used to separate cancer cells from bone marrow & other tissues for isolation, identification and genetic analysis of specific DNA sequences
In the same way, nanoparticles can be filled with encapsulated and targeted onto cancer cells. These nanoparticles are embedded into tumors. • An example of a drug that can be enhanced by nanoparticle delivery is the promising compound Beta- Lapachone. The drug is known to have cytotoxic effects in a wide variety of human malignant cell types.
Nanoencapsulation for Penetration of the Blood–Brain Barrier • Nanotechnology offers a way for transport through blood brain barrier that is more applicable to a wide range of drugs. • Drugs, encapsulated in artificial liposomes, the coatings contain active sites to which antibodies can be attached. The brain capillary receptors recognizes the antibodies which mediate their passage through blood brain barriers. • Once inside the CNS, the liposomes releases their contents.
Nanoparticles &Nonoencapsulation for Insulin delivery • In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, insulin delivery is a major problem and various strategies have evolved inorder to release proper dose of insulin & its rate of release. • Encapsulted insulin is injected into soft tissues, inorder to achieve a gradual, controlled rate of release into blood stream for a basal level of insulin. • Encapsulation for injection have been tried using liposomes which can be administered intravenously.
Nanoencapsulation for protection of implants from immune system • Nanoscale capsules are fabricated to contain living cells. Pores in the sides of nanoparticle cages allow small molecules such as nutrients, oxygen & Carbondioxide to pass throughbut can be regulated to keep out antibodies and macrophages, thus allowing the implanted tissue or organ to be prevented from immune rejection. • A group at Johns Hopkins have developed self assembling silicon nanocubes which can be used for cell encapsulation.
Gold Nanoparticles being Used as Labels to Amplify Detection Signals in Diagnostic Devices • Gold nanoparticles can be coated with biorecognition molecules to target either a patients DNA or protein sample. Gold nanoparticles along with patients complementary DNA probes are incubated over the array. • Once nanoparticles are bound to the surface, the signal is amplified by means of a silver nitrate reduction reaction. • Microarray Scanned & results analyzed for DNA matches. This technique has been reported to have sensitivity equivalent to that of the polymerase-chain-reaction assay for genetic analysis.
Nanomaterials being used in Urine Pregnancy test • Urine of pregnant women contains hCG protein markers (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin). • hCG molecule is introduced into a membrane strip, which moves through the membrane by capillary force and initially interacts with anti-hCG antibody– coated gold nanoparticles. On successful binding, this complex moves through the membrane until it recognizes a region that is also coated with anti-hCG antibody.
The complex becomes tethered to the membrane surface. Accumulation of gold nanoparticles in this of membrane now appears red, which is deeper and richer in color due to large cross section area of gold nanoparticles.
Big opportunities of Nanomedicine in a small world • As nanomedicine has started to accelerate in recent years, cutting edge jobs are also created for those with the right training. • Mauro Ferrari have developed his nanomedicine lab at Department of Nanomedicine and Biomedical engineering at University of Texas in Houston, hiring 30 members to complete his 100 members research team. • Swansea University have developed (US.$ 35million) centre for nanohealth which will hire scientist, technicians and other highly skilled persons to open the job opportunities for people working in Nanomedicine.
“Training may be the weakest piece of the nanomedicineenterprice” says Laurent Levy who is the chief executive of Nanobiotix, a nanomedicine company in Paris. • UCL and Swansea University have started Masters program in Nanomedicine to create highly skilled persons in Nanomedicine.
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