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Introduction and Rationale

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  1. Optimizing intensified Runoff from Roads for Supplemental Irrigation, Tigray Region,EthiopiaMarch,13/ 2014 By:Meseret Dawit Teweldebrihan

  2. Introduction and Rationale • The study: road connecting Senkata through Hawzen to Abreha-we-Atsbeha in the Northern Region of Ethiopia • Is categorized among Arid and Semi-arid regions of Ethiopia • having uneven and erratic rainfall, leading to sever moisture stress and flooding, most importantly, on farms alongside roads. • Agriculture is the foundation of the country’s economy, • about 50% of GDP, • 83.9% of export • 80% of total population engaged in this sector A1. Introduction to IWRM

  3. Introduction and Rationale • Unmitigated hydrological variability increases poverty rates by about 25 % and costs the Ethiopian economy about 40% of its growth potential, leaving growth rates hostage to hydrology. • the irrigation strategy of the country highlights rain water harvesting from various surface conditions as a main source of irrigation water for small scale irrigation developments at farmers level. • Roads have been built for transport – the additional benefits: rain water harvesting, ground recharge have not been explored • In this way, road construction may promote or degrade local communities’ capacity for sustainable development. • existing and planned road design & development is insensitive to water: a major missed opportunity for water harvesting in support of local agriculture and water supply. A1. Introduction to IWRM

  4. Key Research Questions • How much runoff can be generated from the whole catchment and the existing roads per a given amount of rainfall? • What is the extent and amount of dry spell during growing season of major crops? • How best can the runoff generated be used to address crop failure that may result from the dry spell? • How is the perception of stakeholders in utilizing roadside runoff for agriculture? A1. Introduction to IWRM

  5. Research Methodology • Stakeholder analyses: to what extent the importance of road for water harvesting is understood and if there are indigenous ways of putting this into practise • GIS and Google mapping: delineation of the relevant catchment • Rainfall-runoff modelling: estimate the amount of run off generated • Aqua crop: determine the productivity of the harvested water Figure :Simplified flow chart of the methodology adopted in the research A1. Introduction to IWRM

  6. …cont. Fig: Major rivers and DEM map of Suluh, Genfel and Agulea watershed

  7. Major findings • Fig. Calibration result of Genfel Catchment Fig. Validation result of Genfel catchment • Model performance shows that for all catchments, • NS is greater than 0.7 and RVE less than – 5% and + 5% • Pick discharge from road by using: • RM is 35.31m3/sec from 10km and SCSUHM is 99.62m3/sec from 42km. A1. Introduction to IWRM

  8. Major findings • The probabilities that a dry-spell of duration longer than 25 and 32 days does occur at least once in a crop season are 86% and 46% respectively. • Reduction of yield and biomass production =1.15 and 4.63 t/ha respectively Fig: Daily rainfall distribution for minimum yield Fig: Daily rainfall distribution for maximum yield A1. Introduction to IWRM

  9. Monthly average rainfall

  10. 70% of households and 65 % of the farm lands are affected by the road side runoff. • 95 % of the farmers are willing to utilize road side runoff

  11. Conclusions • There are various factors affecting agricultural productivity and sustainability of farmers income as well as their consumptions. • Crops can be rescued from failures caused due to the uneven distribution of rainfall, resulting in a better income • Harvesting road runoff can minimize the damage caused by flood on farms along the road side • The harvested runoff can be used as a supplemental water source for alternative uses

  12. Recommendations • Mainstreaming in educational system: Roads for water harvesting and multiple use • Filling the knowledge gap • There should be integration between relevant institutions and authorities (ERA , MoA as well as regional and zonal line offices) in making future road development plans. • Operationalzing the knowledge acquired • Awareness generation should be done to encourage farmers utilize the runoff from roads for productive purposes. Moreover, technical assistance and trainings needs to be delivered at grass-root level. A1. Introduction to IWRM

  13. Thank you A1. Introduction to IWRM

  14. Road section of the study area • Figure: Complete road section Sinkata – Hawzen – Abraha we Atsbaha