slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 56


  • Uploaded on


I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Agroforest diversity is one of the foundations of healthy and functioning ecosystems, the foundation of opportunity for all people. Rich soils, clean air and water, abundant forests – the complexity of nature and the myriad of species it supports are essential for stable and thriving societies. One important aspect under the Agroforest landscape is the species that composed it. Species generally vary in its type, size, shape, abundance, distribution, trophic requirements or ecological role. It is a fact that there are species that perform very important roles in their respective habitat, otherwise if its population decreases, a marked change on other species would happen. It is on this context of ecological role that this study on agroforest diversity assessment of upper Camaman-an, Cagayan de Oro City and plankton analysis in an urban creek in Cagayan de Oro City has been conducted.


There are six identified creeks in Cagayan de Oro City. Bitan-ag Creek belongs to the landscape of Agroforest species and is the longest and most polluted of all the creeks, river and main drainage. It passes through Barangay Camaman-an, down to Agora, Lapasan, This area shows trends of growing human population, that in the words of one resident, the creek used to be a small stream with flowing potable freshwater. Current conditions of the creek is the result of anthropogenic activities namely the introduction of factory effluents and city sewerage system dumped into it. This results in the further pollution of seawater affecting aquatic ecosystem.


Agrodiversity species associated with creek watershed provides the basis for a functioning planet, buffering change and conferring resilience over all levels of biological organization. The many direct and indirect benefits of agroforest species include all the resources and processes required for human existence such as, oxygen production, pollination of plants, global climate control, filtration and storage of water by wetlands and soil production and fertility are all benefits of the biological diversity of the Earth.


While greater loss of biodiversity or Agroforest species in the Bitan-ag Creek may have partially contributed to higher incidence of flooding, soil erosion, clogging, fresh and marine water encroachment and among others, this study is appropriate and timely endeavor for the urgency of providing appropriate rehabilitation measures are needed in the aforementioned area as well as tributaries of the creek – watershed. Such measures aim to restore the deteriorating area into its original or even better state involving the use of vegetation, engineering structure or a combination of both, hence this study.


Specific Objectives:

  • Identify the composition of phytoplankton species in the watershed creek as bio-indicator for water pollution.
  • Assess the diversity of agroforest landscape ecosystem species in the watershed and their ecological uses, status and economic importance.
  • Determine the soil status of the upper and midstream portions of the Bitan-ag creek.
  • Draw-out ecological and policy implications on the dynamics of biodiversity and creek watershed interactions.


Limketkai & MPSC

Tierra del Puerto, Maria Reyna Hospl.(Midstream

Camaman-an (upstream)


Fig. 1. Bitan-ag Creek Research Sites


A. Participatory Involvement of Research Team

  • Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was conducted among the different stakeholders of the Bitan-ag Creek Rehabilitation Program composed of: a) LGU’s; b) Industry Sectors; c) Government Organizations; d) NGO’s and d) Academic Institutions (MUST, XU, and CHED Reg. 10).
  • Implementation of the Republic Act (RA 9003) known as ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
  • MUST identified researchers served as the facilitator in the discussion and consensus decision was made through signing of MOA.

20.0 meter

Standard protocols in taking Floral Diversity Richness

10.0 meter

Quadrant / Plot Sampling

Establishment of the 20x10 m plot

Collection of Ecological data

Collection of specimens

process procedures in taking plankton analysis
Process/Procedures in Taking Plankton Analysis

1. Sample Collection (Grab Sampling)

Figure 3. Collection of water sample for plankton analysis

  • The Sample was preserved and allowed to stand for a week in a dark area.
  • After a week, the supernatant of samples was decanted.
The samples were examined under a compound microscope under high power objective.
  • The counting was done in a counting chamber through Sedgewick-Rafter Counting Chamber.
  • The cells were counted at a specified strips.
collection and preparation of soil test analysis
Collection and Preparation of Soil Test Analysis

Figure 3. Soil Collection along Bitan-ag Creek Tierra del Puerto Site


Brief description of the upstream of the Bitan-ag Creek:

  • existence of quarrying activities
  • on the riverbank are sprouts of endemic, economical and medicinal floral species

Brief description of the middlestream of the Bitan-ag Creek (Tierra Del Puerto):

  • exposed, dried-up riverbeds with patches of shallow wells that people used as a source of water in their homes

Brief description of the lower stream (Agora) of the Bitan-ag Creek:

  • domestic wastes are being disposed to the creek due to poor sanitation
  • zero turbidity level
  • muddy

Agroforest Species in Bitan-ag Creek


a. Trees

Pterocarpus indicus


Endangered, Economically Important (lumber, medicinal)

Terminalia catappa


Economically Important (used for light construction/ shading purpose)


Artocarpus blancoi


Endemic, Economically Important (lumber)

Ficus septica


Medicinal, water indicator


Cananga odorata Hook. F. & Thomson


Endemic, Economically Important

Persia americana


Economically Important


Bixa orellana


Economically Important (Food Coloring)

Gmelina arborea


Economically Important (lumber)


b. Shrubs

Resinus communis Castor bean Source of biodiesel

Jatropha sp. Tuba-tuba, Kasla Medicinal and potential source of biodiesel


Theobroma cacao Cacao Economically Important

Moringa citrifolia Bankoro Medicinal, Economically Important


c. Herbs

Iresini hersbtii Dugo-dugoan Ornamental, Medicinal

Lantana camara Baho-baho Ornamental


c. Ferns

Adiantum philippense Maiden hair fern Endemic, Ornamental

Lygodium cercinnatum Nito Economically Important (use for handicraft making)


Nephrolipis hersutula Sword fern Ornamental

Asplenium linearis Ornamental


d. Vines

Calamus merrrilii


Endemic, Endangered Economically Important (furniture making)

Pandanus cubicus Pandan Pandan Ornamental, use for basket making

Table 1. Floral Diversity Species Identified and Species Richness in Upper Stream and Middle Stream of Bitan-ag Creek, Cagayan de Oro City

Legend: + present

- absent

continuation table 1
Continuation …..Table 1

Legend: + present

- absent

continuation table 11
Continuation …..Table 1

Legend: + present

- absent

Table 2. Floral Species of Bitan-ag Creek and their Corresponding Ecological Status and Economic Importance
table 3 soil test data of bitan ag creek
Table 3. Soil Test Data of Bitan-ag Creek

Source: Bureau of Soils Region X, August 2006


Ficus septica

Artocarpus blancoi

Sandoricum koetjape

Coffea arabica

Bambusa sp.

Mangefera indica

Cocos nucifera

Artocarpus odoratissimus

Ficus minahassae

Acalypa amentacaeae

Polyschias nodosa

Spathodea campanulata






Distribution of Trees Species


Ficus septica

Artocarpus blancoi

Sandoricum koetjape

Coffea arabica

Bambusa sp.

Mangefera indica

Cocos nucifera

Artocarpus odoratissimus

Intsia bijuga

Canarium sp.

Pterocarpus indicus





Distribution of Tree Species


Phytoplankton is

  • a collective term for free-floating organisms that are suspended in a water column their distribution is controlled by physical processes such as water current and pollution
  • a number of algae that can concentrate in some heavy metals and radioactive wastes and these play an important role in their transfer in the food chain.
  • Water bio-indicator

A. Phytoplankton Species Identified in the Upperstream of Bitan-ag Creek

A. Chodatella sp.

Gomphonema sp

B. Pleurosigma navicilaceum

Spirogyra sp

Ecological Implications:

This species are sensitive to the presence of heavy metals and pollution. They are naturally occurring in clean water. The dominance of the aforementioned species would give some implications that the upper stream of the Bitan-ag was still free from pollution.


B. Phytoplankton Species Identified in the Middle Stream of Bitan-ag Creek

Nitzschia sp.

Gomphonema sp

Clorococcum sp

Pediastrum duplex

Unidentified sp

Unidentified sp

Nitzschia sp.

Navicula sp.


Ecological Implications:

The presence of this Nizschia and Navicula species, indicates that the water is polluted and eutrophic. The appearance of these species would provide indication of the water quality in the middle stream of Bitan-ag Creek is polluted.

Abundance and Distribution of Phytoplankton Species in Middle Stream of the Bitan-ag Creek


B. Phytoplankton Species Identified in the Lower Stream of Bitan-ag Creek

Nostoc sp.

Chlorella sp

Nitzschia sp

Microcystis aeruginosa

Pleurosigma falx

Pediastrum duplex

Prorocentrum compressum


Ecological Implications:

Nostoc sp Produced hepatotoxins (liver tumor causing substances). The presence of this Nizschia species, indicates that the water is polluted and eutrophic. Prorocentrum compressumtoxic if algal bloom happen (red-tide causing dinoflagellate). Pediastrum duplexare pollutant-tolerant species.Pleurosigma falxare found in and in very dirty waters.The appearance of these species would provide indication of the water quality in the lower stream of Bitan-ag Creek is polluted.

Abundance and Distribution of Phytoplankton Species in Agora (Lower stream)

  • Agroforest diversity species identified in the urban mountain revealed that there are 36 common species. These species were identified as 19 economically important species, 10 ornamental species, 4 endemic species, 2 rare species and 1 endangered species. These findings recommend for immediate conservation and protection of species in the urban environment.
The composition, population, abundance and distribution of plankton/phytoplankton as bio-indicator of water pollution varies from one stream to the other or varies horizontally, vertically, seasonally and depends on availability of light. This was revealed when Nitzchia and Navicula species of phytoplankton dominated the middle stream and Microcystis aeruginosa and Nitzchia sp. at the downstream, These species are pollution tolerant species respectively and were known to release toxins (red-tide causing) which are major cause of fish kills.
The trend of soil test analysis from middle stream going to upstream areas indicated that the soil along the Bitan-ag Creek generally showed a very good ranged of soil pH values from 6.78-7.36 (close to soil neutrality) which are appropriate to Agricultural and Cash crops. As such, the percentage organic matter or Nitrogen content is moderate, % Phosphorous is moderately high and % Potassium is sufficient. In terms of the downstream portions of the Bitan-ag Creek obviously, plant species are totally depleted due to high incidence of soil acidity.
The dynamics of agroforest species and watershed interactions could generally viewed on the dominance of floral and fauna species situated in the middlestream and upperstream of the Bitan-ag Creek. This implies that the sufficiency of water supply in the Bitan-ag environs creates higher incidence of biodiversity species distributions and richness.

These findings recommend for immediate conservation and protection of species in the urban environment.

This recommends further study in the conduct of another phytoplankton analysis specifically on its abundance and distribution in the downstream affecting seasonal variations in light, temperature and nutrients.


Periodic soil test analysis will be conducted.

  • It is recommended that Policies bearing Ecological Solid Waste Management Act / Republic Act 9003 should be implemented fully. Local residents, Barangay Captains and City Officials who are actors in the implementation of this policy should coordinate each other and unify common goals and objectives of Bitan-ag Creek Rehabilitation Program.

In a nutshell, there is a need to strengthen coordination, linkages and cooperation of all programs and projects of City Government re: rehabilitation of watershed or Bitan-ag Creek including fund complementation and supplementation.

Mabuhay !