BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE.
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Agroforest diversity is one of the foundations of healthy and functioning ecosystems, the foundation of opportunity for all people. Rich soils, clean air and water, abundant forests – the complexity of nature and the myriad of species it supports are essential for stable and thriving societies. One important aspect under the Agroforest landscape is the species that composed it. Species generally vary in its type, size, shape, abundance, distribution, trophic requirements or ecological role. It is a fact that there are species that perform very important roles in their respective habitat, otherwise if its population decreases, a marked change on other species would happen. It is on this context of ecological role that this study on agroforest diversity assessment of upper Camaman-an, Cagayan de Oro City and plankton analysis in an urban creek in Cagayan de Oro City has been conducted.
There are six identified creeks in Cagayan de Oro City. Bitan-ag Creek belongs to the landscape of Agroforest species and is the longest and most polluted of all the creeks, river and main drainage. It passes through Barangay Camaman-an, down to Agora, Lapasan, This area shows trends of growing human population, that in the words of one resident, the creek used to be a small stream with flowing potable freshwater. Current conditions of the creek is the result of anthropogenic activities namely the introduction of factory effluents and city sewerage system dumped into it. This results in the further pollution of seawater affecting aquatic ecosystem.
Agrodiversity species associated with creek watershed provides the basis for a functioning planet, buffering change and conferring resilience over all levels of biological organization. The many direct and indirect benefits of agroforest species include all the resources and processes required for human existence such as, oxygen production, pollination of plants, global climate control, filtration and storage of water by wetlands and soil production and fertility are all benefits of the biological diversity of the Earth.
While greater loss of biodiversity or Agroforest species in the Bitan-ag Creek may have partially contributed to higher incidence of flooding, soil erosion, clogging, fresh and marine water encroachment and among others, this study is appropriate and timely endeavor for the urgency of providing appropriate rehabilitation measures are needed in the aforementioned area as well as tributaries of the creek – watershed. Such measures aim to restore the deteriorating area into its original or even better state involving the use of vegetation, engineering structure or a combination of both, hence this study.
Standard protocols in taking Floral Diversity Richness
Quadrant / Plot Sampling
Establishment of the 20x10 m plot
Collection of Ecological data
Collection of specimens
1. Sample Collection (Grab Sampling)
Figure 3. Collection of water sample for plankton analysis
Figure 3. Soil Collection along Bitan-ag Creek Tierra del Puerto Site
Brief description of the middlestream of the Bitan-ag Creek (Tierra Del Puerto):
Brief description of the lower stream (Agora) of the Bitan-ag Creek:
Agroforest Species in Bitan-ag Creek
Endangered, Economically Important (lumber, medicinal)
Economically Important (used for light construction/ shading purpose)
Endemic, Economically Important (lumber)
Medicinal, water indicator
Endemic, Economically Important
Economically Important (Food Coloring)
Economically Important (lumber)
Resinus communis Castor bean Source of biodiesel
Jatropha sp. Tuba-tuba, Kasla Medicinal and potential source of biodiesel
Theobroma cacao Cacao Economically Important
Moringa citrifolia Bankoro Medicinal, Economically Important
Iresini hersbtii Dugo-dugoan Ornamental, Medicinal
Lantana camara Baho-baho Ornamental
Adiantum philippense Maiden hair fern Endemic, Ornamental
Lygodium cercinnatum Nito Economically Important (use for handicraft making)
Nephrolipis hersutula Sword fern Ornamental
Asplenium linearis Ornamental
Endemic, Endangered Economically Important (furniture making)
Pandanus cubicus Pandan Pandan Ornamental, use for basket making
Legend: + present
Source: Bureau of Soils Region X, August 2006
Distribution of Trees Species
Distribution of Tree Species
Composition of Phytoplankton Species in the Bitan-ag Creek as Bio-indicator of Water Quality
A. Phytoplankton Species Identified in the Upperstream of Bitan-ag Creek
A. Chodatella sp.
B. Pleurosigma navicilaceum
This species are sensitive to the presence of heavy metals and pollution. They are naturally occurring in clean water. The dominance of the aforementioned species would give some implications that the upper stream of the Bitan-ag was still free from pollution.
B. Phytoplankton Species Identified in the Middle Stream of Bitan-ag Creek
The presence of this Nizschia and Navicula species, indicates that the water is polluted and eutrophic. The appearance of these species would provide indication of the water quality in the middle stream of Bitan-ag Creek is polluted.
Abundance and Distribution of Phytoplankton Species in Middle Stream of the Bitan-ag Creek
B. Phytoplankton Species Identified in the Lower Stream of Bitan-ag Creek
Nostoc sp Produced hepatotoxins (liver tumor causing substances). The presence of this Nizschia species, indicates that the water is polluted and eutrophic. Prorocentrum compressumtoxic if algal bloom happen (red-tide causing dinoflagellate). Pediastrum duplexare pollutant-tolerant species.Pleurosigma falxare found in and in very dirty waters.The appearance of these species would provide indication of the water quality in the lower stream of Bitan-ag Creek is polluted.
Abundance and Distribution of Phytoplankton Species in Agora (Lower stream)
These findings recommend for immediate conservation and protection of species in the urban environment.
This recommends further study in the conduct of another phytoplankton analysis specifically on its abundance and distribution in the downstream affecting seasonal variations in light, temperature and nutrients.
In a nutshell, there is a need to strengthen coordination, linkages and cooperation of all programs and projects of City Government re: rehabilitation of watershed or Bitan-ag Creek including fund complementation and supplementation.