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FCM, Bactrocera invadens , CBS, Biosecurity & Market Access Update. Vaughan Hattingh / Tim Grout / Justin Chadwick CGA-CRI. False Codling Moth . FCM status. Biggest strategic threat to sthn A citrus industry!! Industry has been notified of threat for years – now an imminent reality

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fcm bactrocera invadens cbs biosecurity market access update

FCM,Bactrocerainvadens,CBS, Biosecurity &Market Access Update

Vaughan Hattingh /

Tim Grout / Justin Chadwick


fcm status
FCM status
  • Biggest strategic threat to sthn A citrus industry!!
  • Industry has been notified of threat for years – now an imminent reality
  • Industry has in recent years been urged to keep infested fruit out of market, especially S. Europe
  • Multiple interceptions reported, especially Spain – now also UK & Netherlands
  • FCM outbreak in Dutch pepper tunnels in 2009
fcm status cont
FCM status cont.
  • EPPO conducting Pest Risk Assessment (PRA) – CRI making inputs
  • Most likely lead to regulation in EPPO region (incl. EU)
  • Compulsory post-harvest cold treatment would be disaster
  • Striving to include options of treatment-inspection-certification & market segregation
  • High level industry steering committee
  • International political and trade engagements to be mobilised
fcm action
FCM action
  • Little time to prepare for intensified regulations
  • Cannot wait until regulations changed – that will be too late to comply with certification option & lead to compulsory cold treatment!
  • Every effort to be made in current and next season to massively reduce FCM across industry
  • There is a 0 FCM tolerance for EU fruit at PPECB inspection
fcm usa
  • Deadlock on 24d FCM cold treatment period continues
  • 3rd party review of interception data being conducted in attempt to progress 24d issue
  • CRI developing collaborative research projects with USA (gain influence) & high level industry contacts being developed
current distribution in africa
Current distribution in Africa
  • Southernmost distribution is: Zambia, Tsumebin Namibia, central Mozambique (between Save and Zambezi rivers), and central Zimbabwe (not officially confirmed by Zimbabwe government). Unofficial surveys in Zimbabwe indicate that the pest might be present as far south as Chiredzi- S 21°, approx. 160 km from SA border.

In 2010 intercepted in northern Botswana – Chobe district (pest status: under surveillance, actionable)

In 2010 and 2011 intercepted in northern Limpopo, South Africa (In 2010 successful eradication of intercepted population in northern Limpopo; In 2011, successful eradication in Tshipise, Weipe & Groblersbrug. In Levubu and Nwanedi, eradication success still pending)

surveillance network in sa
Surveillance network in SA





surveillance in swaziland
Surveillance in Swaziland
  • Four trapping points monitored on a monthly basis by CRI since October 2010
  • Trapping also conducted by Department of Agriculture in Swaziland
  • No interceptions

Red markers= CRI trapping points

surveillance in zimbabwe
Surveillance in Zimbabwe
  • White circles = Traps set out during short term surveys by CRI since January 2010
  • Red markers= Permanent trapping points maintained by citrus growers in S Zimbabwe since May 2010. Traps checked on a weekly basis.
bi detections in zimbabwe unofficial
Bi detections in Zimbabwe (unofficial)

Yellow= detected in 2010.

Green= detected in May 2010 and eradicated.

Red= detected in 2011.

surveillance in botswana
Surveillance in Botswana
  • White circles = Traps set out during short term surveys by CRI since June 2010
  • Red markers= Permanent trapping point maintained by a citrus grower in Southern Botswana since June 2010. Traps checked on a monthly basis.
  • Botswana Government also conducting surveillance
b invadens detections in botswana
B. invadens detections in Botswana
  • Green: detected in June 2010 and eradicated
  • Red: detected in 2011 (no recapture = transient?)
need for ongoing and intensified surveillance
Need for ongoing and intensified surveillance
  • Repeated interceptions: increasing invasive population in northern countries; intensity & frequency of Bi surveillance should increase in Sthn African citrus areas
  • All fruit growers should monitor: data will provide evidence of pest freedom in the event that the pest becomes established in some areas
  • Chances of eradication are higher if the pest is detected early
surveillance monitoring per puc
Surveillance monitoring per PUC
  • A requirement to register for export to special markets (USA, Japan, South Korea, China & EU)
  • Each PUC must have at least one Methyl Eugenol (ME) baited trap for monitoring of Bi
  • All trapping information must be recorded and supplied to the Early Warning Systems (e-mail: janhendrikv@daff.gov.za), DAFF, at the end of each export season. This is a pre-requisite for future re-registration for export to special markets.
  • See trapping guideline http://www.daff.gov.za/
research on pre and post harvest treatments for bi
Research on pre- and post-harvest treatments for Bi
  • Research on field control was conducted in Benin, Namibia, Uganda and Kenya. A combination of Male Annihilation blocks (Blocks with Methyl Eugenol) and protein bait application (M3 or protein hydrolysate) is the best treatment.
  • A cold disinfestation treatment for Bi was developed by Grout et al. (2011): fruit pulp to be maintained at temperatures of 0.9°C or lower for 16 consecutive days
cbs eu
  • Risk Management System is in place
  • EU inspection visit of 2011 mostly OK
  • Continue to get interceptions in EU (2011 higher than 2010)
  • NB to maintain strict control
  • IPPC dispute between SA & EU very slow
  • SA will elevate to WTO if no progress made
  • Executive DAFF – industry steering committee in place
  • Delay may be advantage since USA revision of own CBS regs supports SA’s position
cbs usa 1
CBS - USA (1)
  • CBS in small part of Florida
  • USA conducted PRA & concluded same as SA: fruit is not a pathway for spread
  • USA instated relaxed domestic CBS regs (may move fruit from CBS areas after packhouse treatment)
  • USA considering revision of CBS import regs to align with domestic regs
  • Prospect of future export to USA from other regions in SA
cbs usa 2
CBS – USA (2)
  • USA accepted retention of CBS-free production areas
  • Surveys conducted in all remaining parts of W Cape, inclusion of Van Rhynsdorp, Vredendal, Knysna, George, Mossel Bay in process
  • CBS Pest Free Place of Production in N Limpopo being prepared for promulgation
  • Citrus world threatened by HLB (Asiatic Greening)
  • SA: National HLB Action Plan under development
  • Spread of African Greening surveyed annually
  • Continued expansion in W Cape
  • Isolated occurrence in non-citrus region of E Cape (DAFF undertaking eradication)
biosecurity cont
Biosecurity cont.
  • CFB now has surrounding citrus-free biosecurity zone in place (DAFF enforcing)
  • Biosecurity is an NB value of a future statutory CIS
  • Regs for import of plant material revised (closed ornamental plant gap)
  • Regs for movement of plant material in SA updated (CBS & Greening)
market access
Market Access
  • S Korea: Grapefruit & lemons approved pending Korean acceptance of final adjustments to protocol
  • Thailand: Close to acceptance of final protocol, Thai officials inspect industry March 2012 (access will remain vulnerable)
  • China: FCM systems approach as alternative to cold being considered
  • Japan: Inclusion of other soft citrus pending, new time temp protocol requires more research
market access cont
Market Access cont.
  • EU & USA – covered previously
  • India: Tariffs major obstacle, being pursued
  • Australia, Syria, Cambodia, Philippines, Lebanon, Kazakhstan
  • CIS operated by CRI in support of the interests of the southern African citrus growers
  • CIS is operated on a non-profit self sufficient cost basis that ensures cost to growers is the least required to ensure grower access to trees of superior quality & sound phytosanitary status
  • 2010: CIS subjected to review by international experts – concluded “equal to & in some aspects leads international standards”
  • There are parties who attempt to undermine confidence in the CIS: NB for growers to recognise that this is dangerous mischief
cis cont
CIS cont.
  • CIS reviewers made recommendations on improvements: facilities, procedures, succession planning
  • Action plan developed & is being implemented: agreed with SACNA on budwood price increase & CGA provided R900k to facilitate implementation
  • = 2.3% increase in tree price (budwood & seed cost < 6% of tree price) – see Cutting Edge # 129
cis cont1
CIS cont.
  • Growers have been pushing for a statutory CIS for years – to ensure ongoing ability of industry bodies such as CGA & CRI to protect the long term interests of citrus growers
  • Again there are parties that oppose this: NB for growers to take a stand – suppliers’ businesses are dependant on the growers, growers must demand that suppliers operate within systems put in place to protect the long term interests of the growers