with pollen & microfossils indicating warm temps. Amazon.com. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/images/eol/2003/owenslake.html. http://www.owensvalleyhistory.com/ov_aqueduct1/page19.html. http://www.epa.gov/region09/air/owens/. Global warming and freshwater supply in Asia….
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indicating warm temps.
The Himalayan glaciers feed seven of the great rivers of Asia (the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Salween, Mekong, Yangtze and Huang He) and supply fresh (melt) water runoff to 1/3 of the world’s population (~ 2 billion people).
Sherlock Holmes: A Study in Scarlet, p. 57
Most people, if you describe a train of events to them, will tell you what the result would be. They can put those events together in their minds, and argue from them that something will come to pass. There are few people, however, who, if you told them a result, would be able to evolve from their own inner consciousness what the steps were which led up to that result. This power is what I mean when I talk of reasoning backwards, or analytically."
Price of rye in Germany vs. time expressed as an index. (Source: Lamb, 1995)
Sediment ArchiveProxy Indicator of
coarse sand fraction of
biogenic material surface and deep water environmental conditions
lithic grains (ice-rafted debris) glacial activity on land
volcanic ash volcanic activity on land
Azolla: freshwater fern spore
Steps in SST History
The dominant planktonic species, indicating presence of cool surface waters
Types physical and compositional evidence of past environments
Illite clay: physical weathering
Kaolinite clay: chemical weathering
magnetic pole reversal pattern
depends on sedimentation (accumulation) rate
depends on how disturbed archive is
What archives you use depends on the timespan you are trying to reconstruct.
And – the more clues the better – aim for amultiproxy approach.