Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Chapter 3 - Managing the Information Systems Infrastructure and Services. C ompanies have to plan and manage their infrastructure needs to gain the greatest returns on their IS investments. The IS Infrastructure. The Is Infrastructure.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Chapter 3- Managing the Information Systems Infrastructure and Services Companies have to plan and manage their infrastructure needs to gain the greatest returns on their IS investments
The Is Infrastructure • Businesses rely on an information systems infrastructure • Hardware • System software • Storage • Networking • Data Centers
IS Infrastructure Components:System Software • Controls computer hardware operations • Operating Systems • Examples: Windows, OS X, Linux • Manages hard drives and storage • Manages keyboard, mouse, monitor, & printers • Coordinates application access to computing resources
IS Infrastructure Components:Servers, Clients, and Peers • Servers • Host (serve up) Data, Databases, Files, Applications, Web Sites, Video, and other content for access over the network • Clients • Consume hosted resources • Peers • Serve and Consume resources, both a Server and a Client interacting with similar computers
The Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) • The Internet is one of several Global Networks • The Internet has standard protocols • The Internet is based on Internetworking, or combining networks to form larger networks • The World Wide Web uses the Internet • The World Wide Web is not the Internet • The World Wide Web is • WWW protocols (ex: HTML& WWW URLs) • WWW Documents (e.g.: Web Pages) • WWW Domain Servers (translate URLs into IP addresses) • WWW Browsers
The Internet and the World Wide Web:Web Domain Names and Addresses • The Internet uses IP Addresses • IPV4: Old style, running out of addresses • IPV6: New style, huge address space • The WWW uses Domain Names • Ex: www.google.com • Google is the host name • .com is the suffix • The WWW translates Domain Names into IP Addresses • www.arizona.edu translates to (IPV4) 126.96.36.199
The Internet and the World Wide Web:World Wide Web Architecture • Components • Interconnected Web Servers • Utilize Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) • Communicate over the Internet • Clients request Web page hosted on server • Server break into packets • Packets stream over internet to Client • Client reassembles • Client can request retransmission of any missing packets • Web browser translate Web page into visible output
Demand Fluctuations • Many companies face demand fluctuations • Seasonal Fluctuations (e.g., Christmas) • Monthly Fluctuations (Month-end spikes) • Demand fluctuations create inefficiencies • Some estimate up to 70% of IS capacity only used 20% of the time • IS infrastructure is typically not readily scalable • Changing internal capacity takes time • Cloud computing (next section) may be the answer
What Is Cloud Computing? • Cloud Computing is a way to allocate resources much like a utility sells power • Resources are used “on-demand”, as needed • Customers only pay for what they consume • Resources can be rapidly allocated and reallocated • Consumption becomes an operating expense • % Utilization and Efficiency increase dramatically
Why Cloud Computing? • The efficiency benefits are tremendous • Different customers have different demand spikes • Large data centers have economies of scale • Purchasing, deploying, and managing technology • Implementing green cooling technologies • Flexibly reallocating resources • Customers can focus on core operations • Infrastructure can be consumed as needed • Scalability no longer a limiting factor
Cloud ComputingService Models • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) • Platform as a Service (PaaS) • Software as a Service (SaaS)
Advanced Cloud Applications • Grid Computing • Microprocessors • Networked computers • Large problems that can be decomposed • Edge Computing • Servers at the edges of networks • Close to clients • Enhanced performance
Green Computing • Driving forces • Power Bills • Reputation • Culture • Approaches • Virtualizing servers • Cloud computing • Power management software • Reduced printing • Retiring obsolete hardware responsibly
Linux: Operating System • Linux is developed collaboratively, meaning no one company is solely responsible for its development or ongoing support. • This spreading of development burden amongst individuals and companies has resulted in a large and efficient ecosystem and unheralded software innovation. http://www.linux.com/learn/new-user-guides/376-linux-is-everywhere-an-overview-of-the-linux-operating-system
Linux: Where is it used? http://www.linux.com/learn/new-user-guides/376-linux-is-everywhere-an-overview-of-the-linux-operating-system
Assembly Language An assembly language is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device.
Middleware • A computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system. It can be described as "software glue".[Middleware makes it easier for software developers to perform communication and input/output, so they can focus on the specific purpose of their application.
Data Buffer • A Data Buffer is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another.
Firewall • Afirewall is a software or hardware-based network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether they should be allowed through or not.
IP Convergence • IP convergence refers to the capability of the Internet to act as a single foundation for various functions. IP convergence allows companies to create a more mobile workforce. • A VPN helps maintain corporate security by separating business traffic from other Internet traffic -- Remote employees can use the Internet to access everything from corporate files to voicemail messages. http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ip-convergence1.htm