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Chapter 3 - Managing the Information Systems Infrastructure and Services. C ompanies have to plan and manage their infrastructure needs to gain the greatest returns on their IS investments. The IS Infrastructure. The Is Infrastructure.

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Chapter 3 - Managing the Information Systems Infrastructure and Services


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    1. Chapter 3- Managing the Information Systems Infrastructure and Services Companies have to plan and manage their infrastructure needs to gain the greatest returns on their IS investments

    2. The IS Infrastructure

    3. The Is Infrastructure • Businesses rely on an information systems infrastructure • Hardware • System software • Storage • Networking • Data Centers

    4. IS Infrastructure Components:Hardware – Computer Types

    5. IS Infrastructure Components:System Software • Controls computer hardware operations • Operating Systems • Examples: Windows, OS X, Linux • Manages hard drives and storage • Manages keyboard, mouse, monitor, & printers • Coordinates application access to computing resources

    6. IS Infrastructure Components: Networking

    7. IS Infrastructure Components:Servers, Clients, and Peers • Servers • Host (serve up) Data, Databases, Files, Applications, Web Sites, Video, and other content for access over the network • Clients • Consume hosted resources • Peers • Serve and Consume resources, both a Server and a Client interacting with similar computers

    8. IS Infrastructure Components: Types of Computer Networks

    9. The Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) • The Internet is one of several Global Networks • The Internet has standard protocols • The Internet is based on Internetworking, or combining networks to form larger networks • The World Wide Web uses the Internet • The World Wide Web is not the Internet • The World Wide Web is • WWW protocols (ex: HTML& WWW URLs) • WWW Documents (e.g.: Web Pages) • WWW Domain Servers (translate URLs into IP addresses) • WWW Browsers

    10. The Internet and the World Wide Web:Web Domain Names and Addresses • The Internet uses IP Addresses • IPV4: Old style, running out of addresses • IPV6: New style, huge address space • The WWW uses Domain Names • Ex: www.google.com • Google is the host name • .com is the suffix • The WWW translates Domain Names into IP Addresses • www.arizona.edu translates to (IPV4) 128.196.134.37

    11. The Internet and the World Wide Web:World Wide Web Architecture • Components • Interconnected Web Servers • Utilize Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) • Communicate over the Internet • Clients request Web page hosted on server • Server break into packets • Packets stream over internet to Client • Client reassembles • Client can request retransmission of any missing packets • Web browser translate Web page into visible output

    12. Demand Fluctuations • Many companies face demand fluctuations • Seasonal Fluctuations (e.g., Christmas) • Monthly Fluctuations (Month-end spikes) • Demand fluctuations create inefficiencies • Some estimate up to 70% of IS capacity only used 20% of the time • IS infrastructure is typically not readily scalable • Changing internal capacity takes time • Cloud computing (next section) may be the answer

    13. What Is Cloud Computing? • Cloud Computing is a way to allocate resources much like a utility sells power • Resources are used “on-demand”, as needed • Customers only pay for what they consume • Resources can be rapidly allocated and reallocated • Consumption becomes an operating expense • % Utilization and Efficiency increase dramatically

    14. Why Cloud Computing? • The efficiency benefits are tremendous • Different customers have different demand spikes • Large data centers have economies of scale • Purchasing, deploying, and managing technology • Implementing green cooling technologies • Flexibly reallocating resources • Customers can focus on core operations • Infrastructure can be consumed as needed • Scalability no longer a limiting factor

    15. Cloud ComputingService Models • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) • Platform as a Service (PaaS) • Software as a Service (SaaS)

    16. Public and Private Clouds

    17. Advanced Cloud Applications • Grid Computing • Microprocessors • Networked computers • Large problems that can be decomposed • Edge Computing • Servers at the edges of networks • Close to clients • Enhanced performance

    18. Convergence of Computing and Telecommunications

    19. Green Computing • Driving forces • Power Bills • Reputation • Culture • Approaches • Virtualizing servers • Cloud computing • Power management software • Reduced printing • Retiring obsolete hardware responsibly

    20. Linux: Operating System • Linux is developed collaboratively, meaning no one company is solely responsible for its development or ongoing support. • This spreading of development burden amongst individuals and companies has resulted in a large and efficient ecosystem and unheralded software innovation. http://www.linux.com/learn/new-user-guides/376-linux-is-everywhere-an-overview-of-the-linux-operating-system

    21. Linux: Where is it used? http://www.linux.com/learn/new-user-guides/376-linux-is-everywhere-an-overview-of-the-linux-operating-system

    22. Assembly Language An assembly language is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device.

    23. Middleware • A computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system. It can be described as "software glue".[Middleware makes it easier for software developers to perform communication and input/output, so they can focus on the specific purpose of their application.

    24. Data Buffer • A Data Buffer is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another.

    25. Firewall • Afirewall is a software or hardware-based network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether they should be allowed through or not.

    26. IP Convergence • IP convergence refers to the capability of the Internet to act as a single foundation for various functions. IP convergence allows companies to create a more mobile workforce. • A VPN helps maintain corporate security by separating business traffic from other Internet traffic -- Remote employees can use the Internet to access everything from corporate files to voicemail messages. http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ip-convergence1.htm