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Mobile Devices and Presence Nanotechnoloy and Embedded Devices. COMP 381 18 February. Mobile Devices and Presence. Evolution of cellphones. Stats. Environment . gowirelessgogreen Rate of upgrade Hazardous materials . Recycling Rates. By Age. Changing Usage.

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mobile devices and presence
Mobile Devices and Presence

Evolution of cellphones



Rate of upgrade

Hazardous materials

Recycling Rates

changing usage
Changing Usage
  • Mobile access to social networking
  • Gaming goes mobile
    • consoles $21.4B in ‘08 to $18.7B in ’10
    • Zynga value $9.3B (more than EA)
  • Always able to be reached
  • Higher expectations of availability?
  • Multi-tasking = not always actively listening
  • Distractions
    • Not just texting
    • 18% of fatalities due to cell phone use
    • Four times as likely to get in crash using cell
    • Why is it different than talking to a passenger?
what is addiction
What is Addiction?
  • Physiological:

Chronic relapsing condition characterized by compulsive abuse and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain.

  • Behavioral:

Any act that when abused becomes detrimental to other areas of life

  • Same irrespective of the drug
physiological evidence
Physiological Evidence

No research

indicating a

chemical change

in the brain from an

addiction to technology

Recently: physiological changes

behavioral components
Behavioral Components

-Dr. Patrick Carnes

  • Absorption
  • Mood Modification

(Greenfield study: 29%)

  • Tolerance
  • Withdrawal
  • Relapse
constant emailing
Constant Emailing

2007 survey

When Technology Addiction Takes Over Your Life

59% in bed

53% in the bathroom

37% while driving

12% in church

47% more likely to check email in middle of night than get a late night snack

alternative payment options
Alternative Payment Options
  • Wireless credit card scanning
    • Pay for anything, anywhere, anytime 
    • squareup
  • Find and pay for public parking in major cities
    • Miami, New York City
    • bestparking
  • Purchase tickets
  •  Digital coupons
  • Haiti using cell phones as debit cards
  • Starbucks
  • Electronic boarding passes
  • But is the rest of the world still ahead of us? Why?
key technologies
Key Technologies
  • NFC (Near Field Communication)
    • Wave, not line of sight
  • Text payment
  • Digital wallet
  • Use by business to track employees
    • Truck Drivers, Delivery, Taxis
    • Can track location
      • Invasion of privacy?
      • Safety?
      • Business control?
  • Mobile Devices as Marketing Tools
    • No longer need a street address
    • Food Trucks
  • But what about coupons based on location?
Imagine …

Do you like it?

Based on

your calendar and

the location of your cell phone

Software recognizes that you are late for a meeting

and texts a message to all of the people who are scheduled to attend

how is location determined
How is location determined?
  • Networking
    • Cell phones
    • Wi-fi
    • Bluetooth
  • Physical device
    • GPS
    • Cards
  • User-provided
    • Calendar
    • Messages
  • Combining

How does increased commercial use impact?


What do you want to make available?

Who do you want to make it available to?

How do you turn it on and off?

How to indicate who to share with?

Sharing with applications?

inadvertent sharing
Inadvertent Sharing
  • Geo-tagging
    • Cell phones
    • Cameras
    • Twitter
    • icanstalku
mobile in politics
Mobile in Politics
  • Activism vsslacktivism
    • Does technology increase activism?
    • Does it help?
    • Is it a mirage?
  • In the US:
    • SMS remains the key technology
      • But needs to take the user to “live” sites
    • Who is the target? How important?
      • Over 80% of smartphone/tablet users are registered voters
    • Will YOU give them your phone #?
nanotechnology and embedded devices
Nanotechnology and Embedded Devices

What is the difference when you don’t know that it is there?

  • Creating and using structures on the atomic scale
  • Uses:
      • Medical
      • Environmental
      • Material
  • Trends:
      • Greater flexibility and precision at lower costs
  • Feynman: predicted nanotechnology in 1959
  • Drexler: in 1986 posed the threat of runaway self-replicating nanobots
    • Later disclaimed
  • Eigler: manipulated individual atoms in 1989
feynman bottom up approach
Feynman: Bottom-up approach
  • Top-down:
    • Start with something big
    • Chisel away at it
    • Make it smaller and smaller
  • Bottom-up:
    • Start with smaller entities
    • Assemble them into larger objects
drexler molecular manufacturing
Drexler: Molecular Manufacturing
  • Factory of mini-atomic machines: nanobots
  • Could produce anything
    • Assemblers
    • Self-replicating
  • Good:
    • Availability
    • Adaptability
  • Bad (Grey Goo):
    • Loosed into the environment
    • Mistakes
eigler making it happen
Eigler: Making it Happen

Used electron microscope

Moved Xenon atoms

  • More reactive

Smaller particle size, greater proportion surface atoms

      • 30 nm - 5%
      • 10 nm - 20%
      • 3 nm - 50%
  • Impact of Brownian motion
  • Viscosity increase
  • Inertia decrease
  • Structural components with at least one dimension less than 100nm
  • Layers - one dimension in the nanoscale
  • Nanowires and nanotubes in two dimensions
  • Nanoparticles in all three
nanolayer uses
Nanolayer Uses
  • Optical devices (40 years!)
  • Computer chips
  • Cutting tools (nanocrystalline)
    • tungsten carbide, titanium carbide, …
    • more erosion-resistant
    • last longer
  • Self-cleaning glass (2001)
    • Coating of titanium dioxide
    • Uses water to clean
    • With sun, clears grime
  • First observed 1991
    • Nanometres in diameter and several mm or cm long
    • Mechanically very strong (diamond)
    • Usage:
      • Nanoelectronics
      • spaceships (weight and structural integrity)
  • Formed by self-assembly
  • Usages:
    • Semiconductor nanowires
    • High-density data storage
  • Cosmetics, coatings, additives
    • Sunscreens
    • Pigment in cosmetics
    • Solar cells
    • Biological tracers
  • Medical
    • Antimicrobial agent to treat wounds, infections
    • Burn dressing
future applications
Future Applications
  • Nanomachines and Nanorobotics
  • Molecular Manufacturing
  • Nanomedicine
  • Environmental/ Energy
  • Nanoelectronics
nanomachines nanorobotics
Nanomachines/ Nanorobotics
  • Molecular scale gears, motors, structures, etc
  • Sophisticated biological machines exist (protein folding)
  • Circuits since 2006
  • Largest:
    • 74 different DNA molecules
    • Square root of any number up to 15 and round
    • 10 hours
future medicine
Future medicine
  • Intelligent nanobots
    • diagnostic devices,
    • contrast agents
    • drug delivery vehicles
  • Intelligent nanosurgeons
    • Reconstruct molecular structure of cancer cells
    • Operate without leaving scars/ complex operations
    • Cosmetic surgery/ change any physical feature
    • Alter DNA
environmental energy
Environmental/ Energy
  • Use intelligent nanobots to:
    • Rebuild ozone layer
    • Clean up oil spills/ other disasters
    • Clean water 
  • Bottom-up method of manufacturing would result in less pollution
  • Create non-renewable resources (oil, coal)
social and ethical issues
Social and Ethical Issues
  • Privacy and Control
  • Nanodivide?
  • Human enhancement; longevity
  • Military/Weaponry issues
military weaponry issues
Military/Weaponry Issues
  • In 2010, 23% of US government nano investment spent by DoD
  • Potential for new biological and chemical weapons.
  • An arms race?
  • Military development in the civil sector
  • Is there a problem when nano is used for military ends?