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7.1 Stress in Earth’s crust. The Way Tectonic Plates Move. Learning Targets. Describe the anatomy of an earthquake and relate plate tectonics (different types of plate boundaries) to earthquakes. Describe how stress builds up earthquakes. Stress. Plate movement is never smooth

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7 1 stress in earth s crust

7.1 Stress in Earth’s crust

The Way Tectonic Plates Move

learning targets
Learning Targets
  • Describe the anatomy of an earthquake and relate plate tectonics (different types of plate boundaries) to earthquakes.
  • Describe how stress builds up earthquakes
stress
Stress
  • Plate movement is never smooth
    • Plates made of solid, rough rock
  • Stress builds up at plate boundaries
    • Fold- Rocks bend
    • Fracture- Rocks break
  • Earthquake = removal of stress
stress1
Stress
  • Mantle convectioncellsputs a lot of stress on the rocks of the lithosphere.
types of stress
Types of Stress
  • Confining: pressure from all directions
    • No deformation
  • Compression: pushed together
    • Fractures or folds
  • Tension: pulled apart (extension)
    • Stretch or break
  • Shear: parallel but opposite (scissors)
    • Break and slide past one another
types of stress1
Types of Stress
  • What type of plate boundary
    • Confining - Results from being buried
    • Compression - Convergent
    • Tension -Divergent
    • Shear - Transform
elastic vs plastic
Elastic vs. Plastic
  • Rocks under stress will deform
    • Elastically: bend then return to original shape
  • Rocks under more stress will deform
    • Plastically: bend without the ability to return to the original shape
geologic structures
Geologic Structures
  • Folds
  • Joints
  • Faults
geologic structures folds
Geologic Structures - Folds
  • Folds: bends in rock due to compression
    • Monocline: non-horizontal layering
    • Anticline: Upward bulge
    • Syncline: Downward bulge
geologic structures joints
Geologic Structures - Joints
  • Joints: breaks where rocks do not move
geologic structures faults
Geologic Structures - Faults
  • Faults: breaks where rocks have moved
fault
Fault

Fracture – If the stress continues, the rock will break

geologic structures summary
Geologic Structures Summary
  • Folds: bends in rock due to compression
    • Monocline: non-horizontal layering
    • Anticline: Upward bulge
    • Syncline: Downward bulge
  • Joints: breaks where rocks do not move
  • Faults: breaks where rocks have moved