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''Unix is user friendly -- It's just picky about who it's friends are...'' -- Unknown, seen in .sigs around the world PowerPoint Presentation
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''Unix is user friendly -- It's just picky about who it's friends are...'' -- Unknown, seen in .sigs around the world - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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''Unix is user friendly -- It's just picky about who it's friends are...'' -- Unknown, seen in .sigs around the world
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  1. ''Unix is user friendly -- It's just picky about who it's friends are...'' -- Unknown, seen in .sigs around the world

  2. Basics of the Unix/Linux Environment Shells and Your Unix Environment

  3. What is a shell? • Traditional user interface with the unix operating system…it interprets your typing • A scripting program that controls the syntax at the command line interface • Just as there are many flavors of unix and unix-like systems, there are many types of shells

  4. Common Shells Bourne Shell C Shell Korn Shell TENEX C shell Bourne Again Shell

  5. sh • Bourne shell • the original Unix shell • Pro: Flexible and powerful scripting shell • Con: Not interactive or particularly user friendly

  6. csh • C shell • designed for the BSD Unix system • syntax closely follows C programming • Pro: easy for C programmers to learn and comes with many interactive features such as file completion and aliases • Con: not as flexible or powerful a scripting language

  7. ksh • Korn shell • derived from the Bourne shell so has a shared syntax • job control taken from the C shell

  8. bash • Bourne-Again shell • Combines the “best” of sh, ksh, and csh • Default shell on Linux and Mac OSX operating systems • Pro: Flexible and powerful scripting language with all the interactive features of csh plus command completion • This shell is great for complicated GMT scripts

  9. tcsh • TENEX C shell • Default shell of the CERI unix environment • Pro: User friendly on the command line & it is what your CERI account environment is set up to use • Con: It is not as suitable for long and involved scripts • It is perfectly good for most daily geophysics work on the command line & most faculty here use it on a daily basis so there are many experts around

  10. What is my shell? • env $SHELL will echo your current login shell to the screen • to switch your shell in a single terminal window, simply type the name of the preferred shell • the command line also usually indicates which shell family you are using • $ -- bash, sh, or ksh • > or % -- csh, tcsh

  11. Useful features of tcsh & bash • file completion: you can key the tab button to complete the name of a long file • history: list the previous commands entered during the active session % history 1139 11:19 ls | more | tail -n5 >> directory.list • up and down arrow keys: allow you to move up and down through previous commands • right and left arrow keys: allow you to edit command lines without starting from scratch • !XXX: reruns the command labeled XXX in the history list % !1139 ls | more | tail -n5 >> directory.list

  12. The Unix Environment • Mitch has set up the basic CERI environment so that everyone can access the standard geophysics packages available on the Sun system • But what does this mean? • your environment is composed of a number of environment variables which provide important information to the operating system • since you generally want the computer to behave the same way everyday, these environment variables are setup in configuration files accessed at login

  13. What are your environment variables? • env: prints the current environment variables to the screen

  14. HOME & SHELL • HOME: this environment variable controls what other unix commands consider your base or home directory • this is how “%cd “ knows which directory to go to % echo $HOME /gaia/home/hdeshon • SHELL: this variable stores your default shell % echo $SHELL /usr/bin/tcsh *these environment variables should not be changed by the user

  15. PATH • PATH: tells the shell where to find applications and/or executable files %echo $PATH /gaia/smeagol/local/passcal.2006/bin:/gaia/smeagol/local/gmt/GMT4.2.1/bin:/opt/local/bin:/opt/local/sbin:/opt/csw/bin:/opt/csw/sbin:/ceri/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/ceri/local/sbin:/gaia/home/stbisrat/bin:/usr/local/bin:/opt/Studio/SUNWspro/bin:/opt/Studio/SUNWspro/prod/bin:/opt/sfw/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/dt/bin:/usr/openwin/bin:/bin:/usr/ucb:/usr/ccs/bin:/usr/local/teTeX/bin/sparc-sun-solaris2.8:/gaia/smeagol/local/bin • The : is used to separate each full path name • When a command is called from the command line, the shell will search through this list of paths, in order, until it finds the first instance

  16. How does PATH work? If you are working a program to do least squares analysis and decide to call it “ls,” what will happen when you enter the command “ls”? It depends on your PATH variable. When the shell goes looking through your path for an executable file named “ls”, it will run the first one it finds.

  17. If the directory containing your least squares program (executable file), “ls”, is in your path Before the directory containing the Unix list command, “ls”, it will run your program and you will not be able (at least simply) to get a listing of your directory!

  18. If the directory containing your least squares program, “ls”, is in your path AFTER the directory containing the Unix list command, “ls”, it will run the Unix ls command and you will not be able (at least simply) to run your program!

  19. To force your least squares executable in the current (working) directory to run %./ls • To force the unixls command to run %/bin/ls

  20. MANPATH • MANPATH: tells the shell where to find the manual pages read using the man command %echo $MANPATH /gaia/smeagol/local/passcal.2006/man:/gaia:smeagol/local/gmt/GMT4.2.1/man:/opt/local/man:/ceri/local/man:/usr/dt/man:/usr/man:/usr/openwin/share/man:/usr/local/man:/opt/SUNWspro/man:/opt/sfw/man:/usr/local/teTeX/man:/gaia/smeagol/local/man:/opt/csw/man • If you do a man on a command and the shell can’t find a manual page (and you are sure the man page exists), this environment variable may not be set correctly

  21. HOST & REMOTEHOST • HOST: the name of the machine you are currently logged into • REMOTEHOST: the name of the machine you are sitting in front of, if different % echo $HOST $REMOTEHOST enigma sailfish2.ceri.memphis.edu

  22. SSH Related Variables • SSH_CLIENT: the IP (internet protocol) address of the HOST machine • SSH_CONNECTION: the IP address of the HOST machine and the REMOTEHOST machine % echo $SSH_CLIENT $SSH_CONNECTION 141.225.156.223 52372 22 141.225.156.223 52372 141.225.157.75 22

  23. Modifying your current shell environment • If you mess up modifying the environment in your current window – you may “break” your current window (shell). • This is generally not a problem on the sun, mac, etc. • The environment is local to that window/shell. • Just close it and open another window.

  24. set • set: sets csh shell variables • A typical tcshset command is %set history=100 This would save the last 100 commands on the history list. • The bash equivalent is simply %history=100

  25. setenv • setenv: the csh command to change environment settings. % setenv PATH {$PATH}:/gaia/home/hdeshon/scripts this adds the directory ‘~/scripts’ to the end of the environment variable PATH within the active window • The bash equivalent is simply %PATH=$PATH:/gaia/home/hdeshon/scripts

  26. setenvcan be run on the command line, from within a local configuration file (.cshrc or .login), or in a shell script. • When run without specifying an environment variable, it will print all environment variables to the screen

  27. Making your own environment variables • Anytime you want a global definition of something, you can create your own global environment variable • %setenv LATESTRTVEL rtvel4_9305_5bv19

  28. Modifying your default environment • It will get old changing everything to the way you want it each time you log in/open a new window/start a new shell. And this being Unix, there is a (easy) way to set up your own personal environment. • The setup of your personal environment (personal changes/preferences for how you want the shell to work for you) is stored in shell configuration files, aka dot files .cshrc or .bashrc • There is also a file .login, but it is not likely you will have to change it (it get’s used when you log in, not each time you start a shell)

  29. .cshrc setenv PATH ${PATH}:/gaia/home/hdeshon/scripts setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH ${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}:/gaia/home/hdeshon/fftw-2.1.5/lib setenv PRINTER 3876_grad set filec #explicitly turns on file completion set noclobber #turns on no clobber, which keeps redirect > from #overwriting files unless the ! is specified set history=500 #keep the last 500 commands in the history list alias l 'ls -F'

  30. .bashrc PATH=/usr/local/sod-2.2.2/bin:$ANTELOPE/bin:$PATH export PATH

  31. some warnings • If you need to modify your environment configuration file (.cshrc, .bashrc), do so with care • Always leave two terminal windows open (prior to making any changes) in case you mess your file up so completely and break your active window, you have another window open to delete the offending file • Always backup the file you before modifying it!

  32. Aliases • alias: creates a pseudonym or nickname for a common command or series of commands • Anything you find yourself typing repeatedly can be set to an alias • Anything you find yourself frequently mis-typing can be set to an alias • unalias: unset the alias • alias and unalias can be run within a terminal window for short-term usage or set in your configuration files for long-term usage

  33. Aliases examples alias settitlebar 'echo -n "^[]2;$CWD^G"' alias cwdcmd 'set PROMPT="[${USER}@`hostname`] $CWD% "' alias cd 'chdir \!* && cwdcmd && settitlebar’ alias howmuch 'du -sk .’ alias h 'history’ alias m more alias mroe more alias l 'ls -F' alias c clear alias src source

  34. Source • source: executes configuration files • If you change your configuration file, you will need to execute the changes in all open terminal windows for the changes to take effect. They automatically will take effect when new terminal windows are opened. %nedit ~/.cshrcyou’ve used NEdit to make file changes %source ~/.cshrc