CRIME VICTIMS Definition and problems related to victimisation http://vccrym.weebly.com/index.html
History of Victimology • Victims were not part of the CJS • Victims had to decide if they were going to get retribution • After industrial revolution – CJS focused mostly on the offender • Today, victims are witnesses – they may not choose to take matters into the own hands
Schafer Victim Precipitation Typology • Unrelated victims • Provocative Victims • Precipitative Victims • Biologically weak victims • Socially weak victims • Self-victimizing • Political victims
None of the earlier theorists were concerned with the victim or their injuries – only concerned with how much the victim played a role in their own victimisation
A commonly-held view about a particular group of people e.g. a nation, social group, religion etc... Often incorrect and/or offensive. • Some common stereotypes: + Americans are all loud, fat and obnoxious. + British people are all snobs and have bad teeth. + French people are all frog-eating, onion-lovers called Pierre. + Jews are all money-grabbing masterminds trying to take over the world. + Irish people are all alcoholics who love scoffing potatoes and beating up their peers. + Muslims are all out to kill "civilised people" by blowing themselves up by plane, bus or train. + Goths are morbid, suicidal and listen to bad bands + Emo kids all cry and write love poems sitting under trees in the rain, letting their mascara and eyeliner drip down their faces so everyone knows that their face was wet. + Chavs are all loud, anti-social thugs who all live on council estates, wear fake burberry, baseball caps, steal scooters and cars and anything else they can get away with.
Criminal!! Serial Killer Moses Sithole 5 December 1997 sentenced for 38 murders, 40 rapes, and six robberies Total of: 2,410 years Serving his time in C-Max prison
Victim Murdered Steve Biko Social activist, Social activist Died in dentention http://www.trueknowledge.com/q/facts_about__steve_biko
Criminal!! Poisoned her lover MARIA HELENA GERTRUIDA LEE: 1947 Used arsenic to poison to death her young lover, Alwyn Smith http://www.africacrime-mystery.co.za/books/fsac/chp7.htm
Victim Rape Victim EudySimelane murder and corrective rape http://abcnews.go.com/International/south-africa-task-force-fight-corrective-rape-lesbians/story?id=13528169
Criminal!! Assasinated SA Prime ministerHendrikVervoed Dimitri Tsafendas Assasinated the architect of Apartheid on 6 September 1966
Victim Swine Flu RuanMuller First swine flu death in 2009 http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/sa-s-first-swine-flu-death-1.453848
Victim Killed during WW2 Robert Key Believed to have put 20 children at risk, but actually saved 20 children by allowing himself to be sacrifices http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1235045/Disgraced-WWII-soldier-blew-showing-grenade-actually-sacrificed-saving-20-children.html
Criminal!! Murderer during WW2 Heinrich Himmler Himmler formed the Einsatzgruppen and built extermination camps. As facilitator and overseer of the concentration camps, Himmler directed the killing of some six million Jews, between 200,000 and 500,000 Romani people, and other victims; the total number of civilians killed by the regime is estimated at eleven to fourteen million people. Most of them were Polish and Soviet citizens. http://www.conservapedia.com/Heinrich_Himmler
Victim Victim of AIDS Nkosi Johnson http://iconicsaffas.blogspot.com/2008/05/nkosi-johnson.html
Criminal!! Murderer Mary Bell: 1968 strangled four-year-old Martin Brown Killed and tortured three-year-old Brian Howe http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/notorious_murders/famous/bell/index_1.html
Refers to some one who has suffered harm / injury Cause of the damage is not necessarily criminal. Could be …. Natural disasters, pollution, discrimination, neglect Definition of the “victim” concept
POSITIVIST VICTIMOLOGY Person who suffers harm and injury as a result of illegitimate activities of another person Distinguish between a natural person, living or dead and a legal entity such as a company like Checkers Objective criterion is used to determine who is the victim and who is the criminal ?
Victims mean people who, individually or collectively, have suffered harm, including physical or mental injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or substantial impairment of their fundamental rights, through acts or omissions that are in violation of criminal laws operative within a specific country including laws proscribing criminal abuse and power. IS THIS AN ALL ENCOMPASSING DEFINITION? UN DEFINTION OF A VICTIM
Diffusion of roles between the victim and offender during victimisation. Regarded as any person who suffers as a result of activities of the powerful and privileged members of a capitalist society Victim is not viewed as entirely blameless. Victim must be helped as long as it doesn’t affect the offender Focus of victims of police brutality, war, corrective system, state violence, all types of repression Can you formulate your own definition? RADICAL VICTIMOLOGY
Daveyton Murder? • MidoMacia, 27 years old • Found dead in the police cell after being arrested by the police • Dragged behind a police van in full view of cameras and the community • Was he a victim or an offender
US: 325 000 children are subjected to some form of sexual exploitation by adults SA - 2000 - 25, 578 (Childline) Victims include rape, assault, robbery, incest or domestic violence. Problems of crime victims
Loss of property (burglary, robbery, theft from vehicles) Identity theft – what is the loss here? LOSS http://www.southsoft.co.za/alert.php
Suffering of the victim and of society – in what way? Why is violent crime so costly? Medical Aid Insurance Economic SUFFERING
Fear to report crime Fear of what may happen Re-victimisation Desensitised to dangerous situations and fail to take the safety precautions Battered women are nearly 3 x more likely to be re-victimised within 6 months than victims of other crimes (why) Victims of family violence May believe they deserve it Expect to victimised again DRAWBACK OF CRIME STATISTICS IN SA FEAR
People who are crime victims may be likely to commit crime themselves Child abuse Seeing parents committing domestic violence Look at pg 10 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – cycle of violence Exposure to weapons and violent behaviour ANTI SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR
A child is in a car accident with his father. He gets rushed to the hospital and needs surgery immediately. • He goes into the ER and the surgeon takes one look at says “I’m sorry I can do the surgery this is my son”
Just before the nurse died of the effects of an attack, she said, “He did it, the • villain!” referring to one of the three doctors in the room. She didn’t glance or • point in his direction. The doctors were named Green, Brown, and White. Why • was Dr. Brown immediately suspected?
It doesn't hurt to take a hard look at yourself from time to time. This little test should help you get started.During a visit to a mental asylum, a visitor asked the Director what the criteria is that defines if a patient should be institutionalized."Well," said the Director, "we fill up a bathtub. Then we offer a teaspoon, a teacup, and a bucket to the patient and ask the patient to empty the bathtub."Okay, here's your test: 1. Would you use the spoon?2. Would you use the teacup?3. Would you use the bucket?"Oh, I understand," said the visitor. "A normal person would choose the bucket, as it is larger than the spoon."What was the director's response?