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  1. Yeditepe University MedicalSchool Department of Anatomy • INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY • TERMINOLOGY IN ANATOMY • BONES & JOINTS, • GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS • Kaan Yücel M.D.,Ph.D. • 24.November.2011 Thursday


  3. “anatomia, anatome” Latin and Ancient Greek origin. ana-=up temnein, tome=to cut Anatomy means “cutting up, cutting through”.

  4. The term human anatomy comprises a consideration of the various structures which make up the human organism. Human anatomy deals with the structure of the human body at the gross, cellular, and subcellular levels. It also deals with the way in which development and growth alter structure and with relationships between structure and function. Histology Embryology

  5. A knowledge of these topics is essential for anyone who wishes to become a clinical practitioner and especially for those whose practice is likely to be of a surgical nature. Impossible to: Understandthe effects of diseases and their clinical manifestations without an understanding of healthy structure and function To intervene effectively and safely with surgical procedures without a good working knowledge of the anatomy of the relevant part of the body.

  6. Types of anatomy The three main approaches to studying anatomy are regional, systemic, and clinical (or applied), reflecting the body's organization and the priorities and purposes for studying it. In systematic anatomy, various structures may be separately considered. The organs and tissues may be studied in relation to one another in topographicalorregional anatomy.

  7. Regional anatomy (Topographicalanatomy) • Considersthe organization of the human body as major parts or segments: a main body, consisting of the head, neck, and trunk (subdivided into thorax, abdomen, back, and pelvis/perineum), and paired upper limbs and lower limbs. • All the major parts may be further subdivided into areas and region.

  8. Surface anatomy • An essential part of the study of regional anatomy. • Providesknowledge of what lies under the skin and what structures are perceptible to touch (palpable) in the living body at rest and in action.

  9. Systematic Anatomy The various systems of which the human body: Osteology—the bony system or skeleton. Syndesmology—the articulations or joints. Myology—the muscles. Angiology—the vascular system, comprising the heart, bloodvessels, lymphatic vessels, and lymph glands. Neurology—the nervous system. The organs of sense may be included in this system. Splanchnology—the visceral system.

  10. Topographically the viscera form two groups, viz., the thoracic viscera and the abdomino-pelvic viscera. • The heart, a thoracic viscus, is best considered with the vascular system. • The rest of the viscera may be grouped according to their functions: (a) the respiratory apparatus; (b) the digestive apparatus; and (c) the urogenital apparatus.

  11. History of dentistry and anatomy in dentistry • The field of Human Anatomy has a prestigious history, and is considered to be the most prominent of the biological sciences of the 19th and early 20th centuries. • Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of cadavers to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century.

  12. It is believed that the oldest civilization that knew something of dentistry was Egypt. • The earliest indication of such knowledge is found in the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. • The first known dentist was an Egyptian named Hesi-Re (3000 B.C.). He was the chief toothist to the Pharaohs. He was also a physician, indicating an association between medicine and dentistry.

  13. During the 1500s, advances in anatomy, microbiology, and other areas laid the foundations for specialized treatises on dentistry and for a theoretical—not just mechanical and empirical—approach to oral health. These advances included detailed anatomical descriptions of teeth and related structures. Andreas Vesalius

  14. In 1771, John Hunter published "The natural history of human teeth" giving a scientific basis to dental anatomy.

  15. By the 21st century, the availability of interactive computer programs and changing public sentiment led to renewed debate on the use of cadavers in medical education. • The Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry in the UK, founded in 2000, became the first modern medical school to carry out its anatomy education without dissection, though most medical schools continue to see experience with actual cadavers as preferable to entirely computer-based education.

  16. Anatomical position • All anatomical descriptions are expressed in relation to one consistent position, ensuring that descriptions are not ambiguous. • One must visualize this position in the mind when describing patients (or cadavers), whether they are lying on their sides, supine (recumbent, lying on the back, face upward), or prone (lying on the abdomen, face downward).

  17. The anatomical position refers to the body position as if the person were standing upright with the: • Head, eyes, and toes directed anteriorly (forward) • Armsadjacent to the sides with the palms facing anteriorly • Lowerlimbs close together with the feet parallel.

  18. Anatomical planes Anatomical descriptions are based on four imaginary planes (median, sagittal, frontal-coronal, and transverse-axial)that intersect the body in the anatomical position. Sagittal= New Latin sagittālis < sagitta (“arrow”) Coronal= L. corona "crown, garland» Axial= "pertainingto an axis,«

  19. The median plane, the vertical plane passing longitudinally through the body, divides the body into right and left halves. • Sagittal planes are vertical planes passing through the body parallel to the median plane.

  20. Frontal (coronal) planes are vertical planes passing through the body at right angles to the median plane, dividing the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts.

  21. Transverse planes are horizontal planes passing through the body at right angles to the median and frontal planes, dividing the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts. Radiologists refer to transverse planes as transaxial, which is commonly shortened to axial planes.

  22. Anatomical variations • Anatomy books describe (initially, at least) the structure of the body as it is usually observed in people—that is, the most common pattern. • However, occasionally a particular structure demonstrates so much variation within the normal range that the most common pattern is found less than half the time! Variations in topographic position of the appendix.

  23. Terminology in anatomy . 13.

  24. It is importantformedicalpersonneltohave a soundknowledgeandunderstanding of thebasicanatomicterms. • Theaccurateuse of anatomictermsbymedicalpersonnelenablesthemtocommunicatewiththeircolleaguesbothnationallyandinternationally. • Withoutanatomicterms, onecannotaccuratelydiscussorrecordtheabnormalfunctions of joints, theactions of muscles, thealteration of position of organs, ortheexactlocation of swellingsortumors.

  25. Anatomical terms are descriptive terms standardized in an international reference guide, TerminologiaAnatomica (TA). TA- International AnatomicalTerminology Createdby the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, themostrecent (6th) editionwas published in 1998.

  26. Many anatomical terms have both Latin and Greek equivalents. Thus the tongue is lingua (L.) and glossa (Gk), and these are the basis of such terms as lingual artery and glossopharyngeal nerve.

  27. Variousadjectives, arranged as pairs of opposites, describetherelationship of parts of the body orcomparetheposition of twostructuresrelativetoeachother. • Anatomicaldirectionaltermsarebased on the body in theanatomicalposition • Fouranatomicalplanesdividethe body, andsectionsdividetheplanesintovisuallyusefulanddescriptiveparts.

  28. Medialis usedtoindicatethat a structure is nearertothemedianplane of the body. Forexample, the 5th digit of thehand (littlefinger) is medialtotheotherdigits. • Lateralstipulatesthat a structure is fartherawayfromthemedianplane. The 1st digit of thehand (thumb) is lateraltotheotherdigits. • Dorsumusuallyreferstothesuperioraspect of anypartthatprotrudesanteriorlyfromthe body, such as thedorsum of thetongue, nose, penis, orfoot

  29. .

  30. Anatomicaltermsarespecificforcomparisonsmade in theanatomicalposition, orwithreferencetotheanatomicalplanes: • Superiorrefersto a structurethat is nearerthevertex, thetopmostpoint of thecranium (Mediev. L., skull). • Inferiorrefersto a structurethat is situatednearerthe sole of thefoot.

  31. Cranialrelatestothecraniumand is a usefuldirectionalterm, meaningtowardtheheadorcranium. • Caudal(L. cauda, tail) is a usefuldirectionaltermthatmeanstowardthefeetortailregion, represented in humansbythecoccyx (tail bone), thesmall bone at theinferior (caudal) end of thevertebralcolumn.

  32. Posterior(dorsal) denotesthebacksurface of the body ornearertotheback. • Anterior (ventral) denotesthefrontsurface of the body. • Rostral is oftenusedinstead of anteriorwhendescribingparts of thebrain; it meanstowardtherostrum (L. forbeak). • Todescribetherelationship of twostructures, one is saidto be anteriororposteriortotheotherinsofar as it is closertotheanteriororposterior body surface.

  33. Combinedtermsdescribeintermediatepositionalarrangements: inferomedialmeansnearertothefeetandmedianplane—forexample, superolateralmeansnearertotheheadandfartherfromthemedianplane.

  34. Otherterms of relationshipandcomparisonsareindependent of theanatomicalpositionortheanatomicalplanes, relatingprimarilytothebody'ssurfaceoritscentralcore: • Superficial,intermediate, anddeep (Lat. Profundus, profunda) describetheposition of structuresrelativetothesurface of the body ortherelationship of onestructuretoanotherunderlyingoroverlyingstructure. • Externalmeansoutside of orfartherfromthecenter of an organ orcavity, whileinternalmeans inside orclosertothecenter, independent of direction.

  35. Otherterms of relationshipandcomparisonsareindependent of theanatomicalpositionortheanatomicalplanes, relatingprimarilytothebody'ssurfaceoritscentralcore: • Externalmeansoutside of orfartherfromthecenter of an organ orcavity, whileinternalmeans inside orclosertothecenter, independent of direction.

  36. Proximalanddistalareusedwhencontrastingpositionsnearertoorfartherfromtheattachment of a limborthecentralaspect of a linearstructure (origin in general), respectively. Forexample, thearm is proximaltotheforearmandthehand is distaltotheforearm.

  37. Terms of Laterality • Pairedstructureshavingrightandleftmembers (e.g., thekidneys) arebilateral, whereasthoseoccurring on onesideonly (e.g., thespleen) areunilateral. • Somethingoccurring on thesameside of the body as anotherstructure is ipsilateral. • Contralateralmeansoccurring on theoppositeside of thebody • relativetoanotherstructure.

  38. Terms of Movement • Varioustermsdescribemovements of thelimbsandotherparts of the body. • Mostmovementsaredefined in relationshiptotheanatomicalposition, withmovementsoccurringwithin, andaroundaxesalignedwith, specificanatomicalplanes. • Whilemostmovementsoccur at jointswheretwoormorebonesorcartilagesarticulatewithoneanother, severalnon-skeletalstructuresexhibitmovement (e.g., tongue, lips, eyelids).

  39. Terms of movementmayalso be considered in pairs of oppositingmovements: Flexionandextensionmovementsgenerallyoccur in sagittalplanesaround a transverseaxis.

  40. Flexionindicatesbendingordecreasingtheanglebetweenthebonesorparts of the body. Formostjoints (e.g., elbow), flexioninvolvesmovement in an anteriordirection, but it is occasionallyposterior, as in thecase of thekneejoint. • Lateralflexionis a movement of thetrunk in thecoronalplane.

  41. Extensionindicatesstraighteningorincreasingtheanglebetweenthebonesorparts of the body. Extensionusuallyoccurs in a posteriordirection. • Thekneejoint, rotated 180° tootherjoints, is exceptional in thatflexion of thekneeinvolvesposteriormovementandextensioninvolvesanteriormovement.

  42. •Abductionis to draw away from the median plane, while adduction is to move towards the median plane. •Circumductionis a combination of abduction, adduction, flexion and extension, e.g., circumduction can take place in joints like wrist, shoulder.