Kingdoms of Africa. Early Civilizations. Civilizations flourished despite geographical barriers. Bantu migrations and contact contributed to diversity. West African kingdoms controlled the Saharan trade routes. The varied climate zones, and natural resources created diverse ways of life.
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Africa is one of the earth’s seven continents.
There are 52 countries on the continent of Africa..
Sahara is the great divide
Ways of life suited to the conditions of their environment.
Village bonds, religious beliefs gave people a sense of community.
1000BC- 150 AD
Made things from iron.
Warriors used iron tipped spears against their neighbors
Ghana became a rich and powerful nation.
Camels began to be used as a source of transport.
Ghana relied on trade
After 700 AD, the religion of Islam spread over northern Africa.
Muslim fought with the non-Islamic people this weakened them.
Local warriors broke away -this ended many of the trade networks.
Developed along the Nile River south of Egypt.
Shared many cultural traits with Egypt such as religion, architecture and art
Ancient Greeks wrote about an advanced culture
Kingdom of Axum controlled the triangle trade linking Africa, India and the Mediteranean.
Axum was a Christian outpost
It strengthened their ties to the rest of the world, but then it become isolated
International trade resulted in a blend of cultures
Nubia was also known as Kush and The Land of the Bow.
Nubian archers were feared by all.
Long line of powerful kings.
They were often at war with Egypt.
A frankincense tree. The resin was used to make good smelling incense.
200 AD. used “ships of the desert” revolutionized trade
He led the people in conquering and expanding his kingdom
The greatest king of Mali was Mansa Musa (1312-1337).
He developed the gold and salt trade of Mali
Became very powerful and rich.
Mansu Musa: Lord of the Negroes of Guinea. (Photo courtesy of History of Africa)
Berbers came into the area to claim territory that was once part of the kingdom.
Although Mali fell the kingdom of Songha replaced them.
The Berbers still live in North Africa. This picture, taken in 1893, shows a Berber group.
Sunni Ali saw Mali was weakening and led his soldiers to conquer the area.
He began the kingdom of Songhai.
He also set up a complex government to rule all the lands he had conquered.
His son did not accept Islam as a religion.
Muhammad Ture, overthrew the new king and made himself king of Songhai.
Ture was Muslim and made Islam the religion of his kingdom.
In West Africa, women took the dominant role in the marketplace or official peacemakers.
Made decisions by a process known as consensus.
Remained a rich and strong under Ture’s rule.
Complex government centered in the city of Gao.
Morocco invaded Songhai to take its rich trade routes.
Moroccans had a new weapon, the gun.