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WWII 1939-1945. Blitzkrieg Unleashed. GermanPlane: Jonker 87 Stuka Dive Bomber. Aftermath of Bombing Raid. Polish Defense. The War Begins. Early Axis Victories: 1939. Germany invades Poland: falls in less than 6 weeks

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blitzkrieg unleashed
Blitzkrieg Unleashed

GermanPlane: Jonker 87 Stuka Dive Bomber

Aftermath of Bombing Raid

early axis victories 1939
Early Axis Victories: 1939
  • Germany invades Poland: falls in less than 6 weeks
  • USA begins Cash and Carry program: nations must pay first and provide own transport for goods
  • After Poland…what’s next?
early axis victories 1940
After Poland, period of waiting known as sitzkrieg takes place.

Early spring Denmark, Norway, Belgium and Netherlands (the lowlands) defeated…sitzkrieg over

France defeated in 6 weeks

British troops escape at Dunkirk; nearly defeated

Japan successfully attacks French Indochina.

Early Axis Victories: 1940

Prime Minister Winston Churchill

slide14

Was Blitzkrieg Effective?

  • "When the dive-bombers come down, they (the French) stood it for two hours and then ran with their hands over their ears.“
    • "Sedan fell as a result of a bombardment….it was a superb example of military surprise.“
  • "The pace is too fast……it’s the co-operation between the dive-bombers and the tanks that is winning the war for Germany.“
    • "News that the Germans are in Amiens…this is like some ridiculous nightmare."
battle of britain 1940 41
Battle of Britain 1940-41
  • Germany attempts to invade the British Isle (operation sea lion)
  • Turns Luftwaffe loose
  • British cities heavily bombed
  • Citizens take cover in subway tunnels
  • Protected by radar
battle of britain 1940 411
Battle of Britain 1940-41

“Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few”

  • British Royal Air Force (RAF) uses radar to great advantage
  • Britain never invaded
operation barbarossa 1941 45
Operation Barbarossa 1941-45
  • in order to remain healthy, species must continually expand the amount of space they occupy ...'
  • Hitler grows frustrated with Britain
  • In need of Lebensraum: living space
  • Seeks other prize: Soviet Union
    • Great Breadbasket
breaks non aggression pact
Breaks non-aggression pact

“when the attack on Russia starts the world will hold its breath.”

  • Hitler unleashes Wehrmacht: uses most of best troops
  • 3,000,000 Axis troops march into Soviet Union
overconfidence
Overconfidence?

“We have only to kick in the front door and the whole rotten Russian edifice will come tumbling down.” (Hitler)

slide23

Read through the events and create a title

Label when each event occurred

Put the events in order

Copy the correct order on a separate sheet of

paper or onto your notes

costly mistake
Costly Mistake
  • Poorly planned operation
  • Soviets caught by surprise, but able to defend: scorched earth policy announced by Stalin
  • Hitler’s troops can’t handle Russian winter
  • Soldiers froze, supply lines broke down, equipment wouldn’t operate
  • Loses 50% his army
american neutrality changes 1941
American Neutrality Changes 1941
  • USA changes policy from Cash and Carry to Lend Lease
  • Why?
  • President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill agree upon Atlantic Charter: belief that war is being fought to preserve and ensure democratic ideals throughout world
axis in the pacific
Axis in the Pacific
  • Japan wishes to dominate all of Asia
  • Japan led by Hidecki Tojo and Emperor Hirohito

Tojo

Hirohito

pearl harbor
Pearl Harbor
  • USA places embargo on Japan: oil and steel sales cut off
  • Japan must knock out naval base in Hawaii
  • Pacific will be theirs to dominate
pearl harbor attack
Pearl Harbor Attack
  • USA ignored several warnings
  • Japan breaks off diplomatic ties in December
  • Attack planned/led by Admiral Yamamoto
pearl harbor results
Pearl Harbor Results
  • Over 2,300 servicemen dead
  • 5 battleships sunk
  • Several other ships badly damaged
  • USS Arizona suffers greatest losses
slide38

“Yesterday, December 7th, 1941 a date which will live in infamy”…

Write a paragraph explaining the significance of this quote

bataan death march
Bataan Death March
  • Takeover of Philippines
  • 15,000-20,000 American troops marched 65 miles
  • Intense heat
  • No provisions
    • Listen to survivor’s experience!
on the homefront
On the Homefront
  • What do you do when you think the enemy lives among you?
  • Do citizens from countries we are at war with have the same rights?
  • How do you identify the enemy?
pearl harbor s impact on the japanese
Pearl Harbor’s Impact on the Japanese
  • Anti-Japanese sentiments have existed in the United States for several decades prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • The attack of Pearl Harbor shocked the American public, resulting in widespread hysteria and paranoia.

(www.usatoday.com/.../contenttemplate14.htm)

slide47
Those of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast were to be relocated.
  • Internment refers to the forced imprisonment and relocation of a group of people.
  • Internment Camps
slide48

First they came for the Socialists, and I did not speak out--Because I was not a Socialist.

  • Then they came for the Trade Unionists, and I did not speak out--Because I was not a Trade Unionist.
  • Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out--Because I was not a Jew.
  • Then they came for me--and there was no one left to speak for me.

- Martin Niemoller (1892-1984)

slide49

The Allies Strike Back: 1942

  • Germany and Italy control most of Europe
    • Britain and Soviet Union free and fighting back
  • USA joins Allies and felt Germany must be the focus
the allies strike back
The Allies Strike Back
  • Allies fully involved in Operation Torch-
    • USA/UK operation to take back North Africa from Italy and Germany.
    • Important:
      • oil fields of Middle East—fuel essential for military
      • supply lines connecting Britain and India
  • General Dwight Eisenhower named Supreme Allied Commander of Allied forces in Africa/Europe
    • Top military post of all British, USA, France etc.
  • Italy “Soft Underbelly” of the Axis
    • Weakest, most vulnerable of the 3
battle of el alamein
Battle of El Alamein

What problems can you see fighting in this harsh environment?

what problems can you see fighting in this environment
Heat

Lack of vision

Equipment breaks down

Difficult to breath

Traveling through desert sands is slow

What problems can you see fighting in this environment?
victory at el alamein may 1943
Field Marshall Erwin Rommel leads Afrika Corps (The Desert Fox)

General Bernard Montgomery (Monty)

Victory at El Alamein: May 1943

Vs.

Allied win opened up possibility of attacking Italy

the allies strike back 1943
Italian campaign begins in Sicily and works its way up the boot towards Rome

Italy gives up and imprisons Mussolini; no longer in power, but German troops move in to fight.

Fierce battle at Anzio

Rome taken in June of 44’.

The Allies Strike Back: 1943

Anzio.

the allies strike back 19431
Tehran (Iran) Conference held-FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet and finalize plans:

Agreed that the U.S. and Britain should attack across the English Channel

USSR wanted immediate attack to help split German forces.

Soviets felt they were being forced to bear excessive burden vs. Germany

US and UK waited to build up forces.

USSR promises to help versus Japan after Germany’s defeated

The Allies Strike Back: 1943

Churchill, (U.K.) FDR, (U.S.A) Stalin, (U.S.S.R)

the allies strike back 1944
The Allies Strike Back: 1944
  • Operation Overlord (June 6th, ‘44) famously known as D-Day
    • D stands for nothing…variable that depends on various factors like the weather to determine when a mission will take place
  • Allies attack coast of France w/ 150,000 troops and 4,600 boats
  • Operation aimed to liberate France and then defeating Germany itself.
  • German army was taken by surprise, they expected the attack to come from further north in Calais.
    • Deception campaign
    • Inflatable tanks and planes, fake military orders leaked to Nazi’s etc.
  • By July Allies had landed 1million men+
battle of the bulge 1944
Battle of the Bulge: 1944
  • Last counterattack made by Germany in Dec, 1944
  • Luxembourg/Belgium border
  • Surprised Allied forces
  • Largest land battle of war…over 1 million soldiers!
the allies strike back 1945
The Allies Strike Back: 1945
  • Allies push towards Germany from all sides and horror over the Holocaust becoming very evident in Poland and Eastern Germany
holocaust quiz
Holocaust Quiz
  • Put the list of events in order:
    • Rise in Anti-Semitic beliefs in Nazi Germany
    • Kristallnacht(night of broken glass)
    • Jews sent to concentration camps
    • The Final Solution is attempted at extermination camps
    • Nuremberg laws
holocaust
Who was involved?

Jews, gypsies, mentally and physically disabled, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah Witnesses etc.

Holocaust
holocaust1
Holocaust
  • What were the results?
  • Estimated 12,000,000 people died
  • 2/3 of all European Jews executed
  • ½ of all executed were Jewish
yalta conference 1945
Yalta Conference: 1945
  • Yalta Conference held—FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet and finalize plans for end of war:
  • Germany to be split into 4 zones
  • Poland boundary redrawn,
  • USSR gets Kurile Islands in exchange for help against Japan
tragedy strikes
Reluctantly ran for 4th term in office

Physically and mentally tired

April 1945, FDR dies suddenly after complaining of a headache in Warm Springs, GA retreat

Tragedy Strikes!
harry who
Harry Truman takes office.

New Vice President… replaced Henry Wallace

“Hick from Missouri”

Kept in dark of key ideas including: Manhattan Project

Harry who?

What am I getting myself into?

Harry Who?
germany collapses
Russians and Americans advance into Berlin

Last days spent inside Berlin Bunker with Eva Braun and his dog Blondi

Germany Collapses

I’m the luckiest girl in the world to be having dinner with a man like Hitler

germany collapses1
Hitler weds Eva Braun

Commits suicide next day (4/30/45)

Germany Collapses
usa defeated
USA Defeated
  • forced General Douglas MacArthur to leave Philippines—“I Shall Return”
the allies strike back 1942
The Allies Strike Back: 1942

Americans turn tide of Pacific fighting:

  • Doolittle Raid (April)
  • Coral Sea (May)
  • Midway (June)
doolittle raid april
Doolittle Raid (April)
  • (James) DoolittleRaids: bomb Tokyo from carrier based at Midway
    • Japan’s 1st taste of war at home
    • Psychological effect soon after Pearl Harbor
      • Showed we are still a force and your day is coming
battle of coral sea may 1942
Battle of Coral Sea: May 1942
  • Japan intends to invade Australia
  • Engage in battle with USA
  • 1st Carrier battle in history
  • Removed threat to Oceania

Admiral Chester Nimitz: Head of Pacific Fleet

USS Lexington

USS Yorktown

battle of midway june 1942
Battle of Midway: June 1942
  • Midway base destroyed but USA carriers destroy 4 Japanese carriers
  • Turning point in Pacific Fighting
    • Japanese offensive capability crushed: all carriers destroyed
    • Elite unit Japanese Zero Fighters lost
      • Unable to replace materials and skilled pilots, mechanics and commanders
carriers
U.S.S. Lexington

Destroyed

U.S.S. Yorktown

Severely damaged: thought 90 days to repair

Turned tide at Midway days later!

Japanese hadn’t planned on Yorktown’s resources being available

Carriers
island hopping campaign
Island Hopping Campaign
  • Victories provided key to launching attacks
  • Random efforts to free Japanese held islands
    • Cut off supplies from Japan
      • Left to “die on the vine”
      • War over for many years before some isolated soldiers realized
  • Dug in in Iwo Jima and Okinawa
    • Foreshadowed what invasion of Japan might be like
    • Impacted our decision to use atomic bomb
new strategy
New Strategy
  • Resources scarce: planes, fuel, bombs, pilots etc.
    • Must maximize remaining stock
  • Banzai and Kamikaze attacks begin
    • Banzai-human suicide missions on the ground
    • Kamikaze-planes used as bombs
      • 9/11 was not an original idea
success manhattan project
Success: Manhattan Project
  • Urged by Einstein letter
  • Atomic bomb tested in NM
  • Dr. Robert Oppenheimer in charge
  • Moral dilemma for Truman
    • Drop bomb or alternate plan?
potsdam conference 1945
Potsdam Conference held-Truman, Churchill, and Stalin

Agree to concept of United Nations

Agree to use atomic bomb

Issue vague warning to Japan to surrender or face “prompt and utter destruction”

Potsdam Conference: 1945
war ends in the pacific1
War ends in the Pacific

VJ Day: August 15th 1945

Day that Japan Surrenders

formal treaty signed
Formal Treaty Signed
  • Douglas MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito sign treaty aboard USS Missouri
  • USA occupies Japan until 1951
    • New Constitution
    • Education Reform
    • Military deconstructed