Dr Bashir Ahmed Dar Associate professor medicine chinkipora sopore kashmir presently working in malaysia writes on Systemic lupus erythematosus which is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory disorder of autoimmune etiology, occurring predominantly in young women. Common manifestations may include arthralgias and arthritis,malar and other skin rashes.
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SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease involving multisystem or multiorgans of the body.
Sex hormone status
Environmental triggers /Immunological factor s
Loss of ‘self-tolerance
Antigen after being broken into peptides/smaller fragments combines with another protein inside the cell called major MHC-complex , and in this combination is brought to the surface of cell to be presented to T-helper cell or B cell
The processed antigens are transported to the surface of the APC, where it binds with MHC (major histocompatibility complex)
This complex (part of a foreign substance and MHC) is now presented to (CD4 T-helper cell ) or CD8 (cytotoxic T cell) which the T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes and binds to.
The T helper cell role is only to help and not to kill.
The macrophage or B cell also called as antigen presenting cell thus in this way presents small fragment of antigen to CD4 T helper cell or to CD8 T cell (cytotoxic T cell) which the T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes and binds to.
The T helper cell role is only to help and not to kill, while as CD8 can kill the antigen and the cell that presents it..
As soon as cell thus in this way presents small fragment of antigen to CD4 T helper cell or to CD8 T cell (cytotoxic T cell) which the T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes and binds to.APC combines with T cell , the APC gets activated and secretes following cytokines.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
And other factors that activate lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond to the antigens.
IL-1 also activates endothelial cells and induces stimulation of adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells.
antigen-binding other cells to reach site of antigen by chemo attractants etc
to binding site
shape of antigen fits
shape of binding site
C = constant
V = variableAntibody Structure
1 causes degranulation of mast cells, and formation of the membrane attack complex – a group of lipid-soluble proteins that punch holes in the cell membrane of pathogens.Cytotoxic T cell binds to infected cell
Infected cellis destroyed