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New Technologies for Rural Accessibility. Introduction to ITU-D Focus Group 7’s Final Report INFOETHICS2000 Yasuhiko KAWASUMI November 13, 2000, Paris <www7.itu.int/itudfg7>. Focus Group 7 Background. Focus Group 7 Background. Topic of study formulated at WTDC98 (Valleta, Malta)

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new technologies for rural accessibility
New Technologies for Rural Accessibility

Introduction to ITU-D Focus Group 7’s Final Report

INFOETHICS2000

Yasuhiko KAWASUMI

November 13, 2000, Paris

<www7.itu.int/itudfg7>

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

focus group 7 background
Focus Group 7 Background

Focus Group 7 Background

  • Topic of study formulated at WTDC98 (Valleta, Malta)
  • “Study various mechanism by which to promote the development of new telecommunication technologies for rural applications”
  • Funded by a Voluntary Contribution from the Government of Japan

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

fg7 activities 1999 2000
FG7 Activities 1999 - 2000
  • Case Library: 57 project reports collected and available on-line
  • FG7 Web Site: Over 1000 visitors from more than 60 countries
  • Number of FG7 registered members: 81
  • Discussion groups via email, archived on-line

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

collection of case reports on
Collection of Case Reports on;
  • a)ongoing projects using technologies specially designed for rural areas of developing countries including Multipurpose Community Tele-center, Telemedicine and Tele-education;
  • b)planned projects that make new combinations linked with WLL networks;
  • c)examples of how equipment has been adapted for use in particular, harsh climatic or other conditions of remote and rural areas, such as solar powered telephone

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

focus group aimed
Focus Group aimed;
  • a)to select those types of project or system that have social or economic importance but limited commercial profitability, so that the ITU can focus special support upon such projects in helping to develop technology for rural applications;
  • b)to list new measures to be taken by ITU-D to encourage manufacturers and relevant organizations to create technology tailored to developing countries;
  • c)among those measure, to recommend priorities that ITU-D should follow to help achieve the development of technology for rural applications.

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

characteristics of rural areas
Characteristics of Rural Areas
  • - scarcity of absence of public facilities such as reliable electricity supply, water, access roads and regular transport;
  • -scarcity of technical personnel
  • -  difficult topographical conditions, e.g. lakes, rivers, hills, mountains or desserts which render the construction of telecommunications networks very costly
  • -  severe climatic conditions that make critical demands on the equipment
  • - low level of economic activity mainly based on agriculture, fishing, handicrafts, etc.;
  • -   low per capita income
  • - underdeveloped social infrastructure(health, education, etc):
  • -   low population density;

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

slide7
FG7 Findings: Applications

Women in Mozambique listening to broadcasts on a clockwork-powered radio

Source: Freeplay Foundation

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

disadvantage of rural areas
Disadvantage of Rural Areas
  • a)Low educational level, high illiteracy rate
  • b)Hardly any job opportunities
  • c)Low income per capita and per family
  • d)Increasing migration of the young to urban
  • centers
  • e)Unreliable and badly functioning public
  • transport
  • f)Irregular, if any, power supply
  • g)Poor health care and medical services
  • h)Lack of other government services
  • i)Little participation in national affairs

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

community and business development applications
Community and Business Development Applications

Multipurpose Community Telecenters (MCTs)

Telephone-based Interactive Voice Response (IVR)

Three access options for delivering relevant information to rural communities over the PSTN (Source: RiSTi - Telkom Indonesia)

Equipment layout at the Valle de Angeles MCT

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

telemedicine
Telemedicine

Electrocardiogram monitor that transmits patient data over a regular telephone line

Videophone Telemedicine in Indonesia

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

tele education
Tele-education

New Skies Satellite

African Virtual University

Uplink Facility (Washington D.C., Europe, Canada

Content Provider (university or studio)

Partner Institutions (Africa)

Classroom

Classroom

AVU classroom at the Ethiopian Civil Service College (left)

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

trends in rural applications
Trends in rural applications
  • Specialized expertise used to design applications in education, health care, administration, etc.
  • Widespread adoption of Internet platform and multimedia content
  • Presence of multiple actors: PTOs, Governments, NGOs, UN Agencies
  • Lack of telecom connectivity still #1 barrier in rural areas

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

slide13
FG7 Findings: Technologies

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

wireless access technologies
Wireless Access Technologies
  • GSM 400
  • IMT-2000
  • Wireless routers
  • Two-way satellite Internet access

EXISTING

EMERGING

  • VHF radio
  • PMP/Cordless WLL
  • VSAT
  • Digital satellite radio

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

new wireless combinations

TDMA 2.4 GHz

PHS WLL 1.9 GHz

Remote Tower

NMS

Remote Tower

Local Exchange with V5.2 interface

Radio Unit

Base Station (control part)

Base Station (radio part)

Remote Station

Fixed Station

Source: Japan Radio Company, Ltd

New Wireless Combinations

Example: Point-to-Multipoint / PHS - Wireless Local Loop

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

wireless ip based networks at pstn edge
Wireless IP-Based Networks at PSTN Edge

WAN link over rough terrain

Wireless IP Phone Network

Gateway to PSTN

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

powering rural and remote telecom installations

Solar Power

Micro Hydro

Powering rural and remote telecom installations

Wind Energy

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

meeting small scale rural power requirements

Device

Typical power

Typical use

consumption

per day

(hours)

(watts)

Black and white TV

12 - 18

2 - 6

Colour TV

40 - 120

2 - 6

Video casette player

20 - 40

1 - 4

Radio cassette player w/speakers

5 - 80

2 - 12

Desktop computer and monitor

350 - 500

4 - 8

Laptop computer

20 - 40

4 - 8

Two-way radio (standby)

5 - 10

12

Two-way radio (transmitting)

40 - 50

0.5 - 3

Fax/answering machine

30 - 60

continuous

Source: World Bank,

Users' Guide to Off-Grid Energy Solutions.

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/off_grid

Meeting small-scale rural power requirements

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

taking advantage of low cost multimedia devices
Taking advantage of low-cost multimedia devices

Price Range for Low-End Multimedia Devices,September 2000

PC + monitor

$1000

HandheldComputer

$800

Cellular Phone

DigitalSatelliteRadio

$600

Retail Prices, US$

$400

EmailAppliance

$200

$0

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

providing rural access to information through client server computing
Providing rural access to information through client/server computing

The client/server model is the design paradigm of the World Wide Web.

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

lowering the technical skills barrier using information appliances
Lowering the technical skills barrier using information appliances

To install a pre-configured email appliance:

To install PC-based email:

  • connect hard disk drive, monitor, keyboard and mouse
  • plug computer & monitor into 110/220 AC outlet
  • boot up the hard drive
  • navigate the file management system
  • install email software
  • configure dial-up access number, modem rate, SMTP server, etc.
  • insert batteries
  • plug in telephone line
  • turn on machine

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

shifting hardware and software maintenance to urban areas using thin client networks

Source: Byte Magazine, www.byte.com

Shifting hardware and software maintenance to urban areas using thin client networks

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

guidelines for rural icts
Guidelines for Rural ICTs
  • Modularity and scalability
  • Use of wireless technologies
  • Low frequency bands
  • Remote network management
  • Simple configuration & operation

16. Guidelines for rural ICT designers I

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

guidelines for rural icts con t
Guidelines for Rural ICTs (con’t.)
  • Accessible user interface
  • Long life cycle
  • Multi-user terminals
  • Standards compliance
  • Low power requirements

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

barriers in question
Barriers in Question
  • Coordination of Frequencies under 1GHz with regional and national authorities;
  • Concern about the high license fee for frequency spectrum;
  • International Charging Arrangements for Internet Services(ICAIS)

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

slide26
4. Focus Group Recommendations

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

focus group 7 recommendations
Focus Group 7 Recommendations

1. Promote the development of low-cost information appliances for rural use.

2. Create a renewable energy handbook on small-scale power systems for rural ICTs.

3. Increase collaboration with microfinance organizations to develop communication-based rural businesses and applications.

4. Conduct pilot projects of packet-based wireless access infrastructure for multimedia applications.

5. Maintain and expand FG7 Web site.

6. Hold a symposium on new technologies for rural applications.

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

conclusions
Conclusions
  • The goal of “Missing Link” report in 1985; “To bring telephone service within the easy reach of all humankind”
  • As the gap of “haves” and “have-nots” are closing, new gaps are widening
  • The new goal of the ITU Secretary General

“To bring internet services to all humankind within a decade in the new millennium”

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

conclusions cont d
Conclusions-cont’d
  • 1)Choice of technology for rural access is one of the key issues.
  • 2)Linking suppliers and implementers on the web. By providing the comprehensive catalogue with contact information is useful
  • 3) Shared use concept is useful for making ICT terminals and facilities at community centers available at affordable cost.
  • 4)Wireless access system such as FWA, VSATs are effective means of establishing infrastructure in rural areas; less cost and easy installation over the wired system.

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

conclusions cont d1
Conclusions-cont’d
  • 5)IP based network is more economical and flexible than circuit switched network. Emerging packet based wireless access technologies such as IMT-2000 and wireless routers, are being designed to deliver wide range of traffic types more efficiently than traditional wired and cellular telephony network.

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000

conclusions cont d2
Conclusions-cont’d
  • 6)Collaboration for promotion of rural projects among multi-actors such as PTO’s, Governments, UN Agencies, and NGOs etc. should be encouraged.
  • 7) Participation of women and the youth for promotion of information access for rural community should be encouraged.
  • 8) Visit to <www7.itu.int/itudfg7>

SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000