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System Management in Challenged Networks CENS Seminar – November 17 th , 2006 Martin Lukac * PowerPoint Presentation
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System Management in Challenged Networks CENS Seminar – November 17 th , 2006 Martin Lukac * Lewis Girod * † Deborah Estrin * * UCLA CENS - † MIT CSAIL. Outline. Meso American Subduction Experiment (MASE): A Challenged Network Data Delivery System Management The Future.

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slide1
System Management in Challenged Networks

CENS Seminar – November 17th, 2006

Martin Lukac *

Lewis Girod * †

Deborah Estrin *

* UCLA CENS - † MIT CSAIL

outline
Outline
  • Meso American Subduction Experiment (MASE): A Challenged Network
  • Data Delivery
  • System Management
  • The Future
seismic deployment application requirements

50 standalone Caltech sites

62 wirelessly connected UCLA sites

Seismic Deployment Application Requirements
  • Extensive: 500 Km from Acapulco through Mexico City to Tampico
  • Dense: 1 sensor every 5-10 Km
  • High bandwidth: Data acquisition rate: 3 - 24 bit channels at 100Hz each
  • Online and Reliable: Semi real-time (on the order of days), reliable data delivery to UCLA for analysis
  • Online system management
    • Query state, change configuration, update binaries
    • Can not interfere with data delivery
  • Application driven topology: application determines sensor placement
    • Infrastructure does not (Can’t rely on pre-existing cell or power infrastructure)

MASE: Given these requirements, we deployed solar powered seismic stations equipped with 802.11b

slide4

%18 - A

%152 - B

%69 - C

%77 - D

%107 - E

%42 - F

%81 - G

%202 - H

%76 - I

%106 - J

%95 - K

%53 - L

%157 - M

MASE 13 Node Cuernavaca Line

L

K

Data paths

A

  • Network topology does not reflect the mostly linear physical topology
  • Routing and other services can not use physical topology

B

A – sink

Direct inet

connection

F

G

D

C

E

H

M

I

J

N

how challenged is the mase network
How challenged is the MASE network?
  • Frequent unpredictable disconnections
    • Rainy season: sites flood (some 24x7), trees grow
    • Wind: misaligned antennas
    • Equipment malfunction: amps burn, voltage regulators break
  • Poor and unstable links
    • Connectivity secondary concern for site selection
    • Stretched links highly susceptible to weather and environment
  • Human effort is a critical resource
    • Installation, maintenance, protection
networking support needed for both data acquisition and system management
Networking support needed for both data acquisition and system management
  • Data delivery – Bandwidth driven
    • Bandwidth: 20-40 of MB per day per station
    • Latency: get the data eventually, but reliably
    • Many to one routing
  • System Management – Latency driven
    • Bandwidth: usually less than 10’s of KB’s
    • Latency: as fast as possible
    • One to all routing and back
well known limitations of existing techniques
Well-known limitations of existing techniques
  • Data delivery and system management techniques designed for wired or always-on-wireless do not work well
    • Typical tools use TCP to create and maintain an end to end session to deliver a stream of data over multiple hops
    • These are “online applications” which expect reliable links with low latencies
  • Patterns of poor links, disconnections, and disruptions
    • Difficult to obtain and maintain end-to-end connections
    • Intermittent end-to-end connections insufficient to achieve necessary bandwidth and latency
our contributions
Our Contributions
  • Real world application and deployment of Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) techniques for data delivery
  • Disruption Tolerant Shell (DTS): a tool for system management on challenged networks that performs better than traditional tools
summary
Summary
  • MASE: A Challenged Network
    • Poor and erratic links
    • Frequent unpredictable disruptions
  • Data Delivery
  • System Management
  • The Future
data delivery using dtn techniques
Data Delivery using DTN Techniques
  • Buffer data into hour long bundles (1-3 MB)
  • Deliberate one hop bundle transfer
  • Path to sink determined by best ETX
  • Improvement over end-to-end
    • Not affected by path disconnections
    • Keeps retrying on single link instead of full path
    • Continual ‘progress’ being made towards sink
    • More efficient use of bandwidth in face of disconnections and bottlenecks

A

X

X

B

X

X

C

F

end-to-end

hop-by-hop

upcoming features
Upcoming Features
  • Currently piggyback data movement log with actual data
    • No global time stamping of log events
  • Want coarse grained global time (one second)
    • Will be able to recreate ‘movie’ of file movement for entire network
    • Can help spot network problems and bottlenecks
  • Upload data to SensorBase.org
    • Makes it easy to visualize and browse data collection status
    • RSS feed can provide access to anyone who wants to monitor problems or generic status of network
data acknowledgement
Data Acknowledgement
  • Nodes keep their own bundles until ACK’ed by sink
    • Many ways of doing ACK’s
  • First try for ACK implementation worked
    • Push bundle ID into StateSync (disseminates information to all the nodes in the network)
    • But… usage model not quite right… too many entires, too much churn for StateSync (can explain better later)
  • Second try
    • Use ‘file dissemination’ feature of DTS to distribute ACK list once a day
    • Use DTS to remove list once we know all nodes have file
summary1
Summary
  • MASE: A Challenged Network
    • Poor and erratic links
    • Frequent unpredictable disruptions
  • DTN Style Data Delivery
    • Resilient to path disconnections
    • Efficient use of bandwidth
  • System Management
  • The Future
system management
System Management

df –h

ls /opt/dts/file_mover | wc

  • Existing management tool: remote shell (ssh)
  • Modified management tool: Disruption Tolerant Shell
    • Asynchronous remote shell to all nodes in network simultaneously
    • Provides node management capabilities when end-to-end connections are unavailable or fail
    • Ensures that commands will succeed: as long as there is eventually a connection between a node and any other node that already has the command

A

E

B

C

D

F

Commands

Responses

extra fun features of dts
Extra Fun Features of DTS
  • Guaranteed in order execution from source node
  • Reboot and crash safe
  • Implicit feed back on nodes and links: spot bottlenecks, dead nodes
  • Execute a command on individual nodes
  • Push a file to all nodes
    • Distribute new script or component
upcoming features1
Upcoming Features
  • Web interface
    • Command line interface is nice for me
      • Takes a bit of getting used to
    • Web interface more intuitive for asynchronous model
  • Constant feeds of frequently executed commands
    • Disk space, file counts, q330/gurlap status, link quality
  • SensorBase.org
    • Accountability log: load all commands and responses and metadata for those
    • DTS analysis and implicit network feedback: just point and click
reliable state synchronization
Reliable State Synchronization

A

PUBLISH

  • StateSync: reliable and efficient publish-subscribe mechanism
  • Implements a broadcast dissemination protocol
    • Published data is scoped
    • DTS publishes commands and responses one hop
  • Works well for applications that require:
    • Reliable delivery
    • Have a few Kbytes of data to share
    • Data has lifetime that is long compared to system latency requirements
    • Suitable for DTN since it does not use end-to-end connections

Commands

Responses

SYNCHRONIZE

B

PUBLISH

Commands

Responses

SYNCHRONIZE

C

PUBLISH

Commands

Responses

dts latency results
DTS latency results
  • Compare latency of DTS to parallel ssh
  • DTS is faster 90% of the time, comparable to the rest
  • DTS reaches 100% of nodes
    • ssh requires retries from the source node
  • Latency can vary by day, but DTS always faster or comparable to ssh
what makes dts better than ssh
What makes DTS better than ssh?

A

  • StateSync data model: tables of key value pairs
    • DTS has a command table and response table
  • Each node republishes a command and response tables one hop
  • Logging mechanism
    • Do not republish whole table
    • Only send changes to tables: small amount of information
    • More efficient use of bandwidth in face of disconnections
  • Retransmission protocol
    • Keeps retrying on individual links
    • Not affected by path disconnections
    • No overhead of creating and maintaining end-to-end connection

Cmd A-1

Cmd A-1

Resp A-1-A

Resp A-1-A

Resp A-1-B

Resp A-1-C

B

Cmd A-1

Cmd A-1

Resp A-1-A

Resp A-1-A

Resp A-1-B

Resp A-1-B

Resp A-1-C

Resp A-1-C

future of statesync
Future of StateSync
  • StateSync allows data to be published N hops
    • When publish N hops, not end to end but expect data path (the flow) to be maintained with refresh beacons
    • If refreshes from source or node in flow stop, statesync will not propagate information
    • Not idea for frequent disconnections
  • DTS publishes data one hop
    • Gets around problem by republishing another nodes data as its own
    • Statesync only publishes one hop
  • Tweaks
    • Allow flows to be propagated even when no refresh from source or node along data path
    • Tunable latency parameters
    • Report metrics about itself
  • DTS can then publish data N hops
    • Lowers RAM usage, lowers number of packets
site installation
Mexico Xyoli Pérez-Campos, Mario Islas Herrera, Oscar Martínez Susano, Jorge Soto, Aida Quezada Reyes, Arturo Iglesias, Lizbeth Espejo, Luis Antonio Placencia Gómez, Luis Edgar Rodriguez, Fernando GreeneSite Installation

USA Paul Davis, Allen Husker, Igor Stubailo, Richard Guy, Sam Irving, Martin Lukac, Alma Quezada, Steve Skinner, Irving Flores

our contributions1
Our Contributions
  • Real world application and deployment of Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) techniques for data delivery
  • Disruption Tolerant Shell (DTS): a tool for system management on challenged networks that performs better than traditional tools
summary2
Summary
  • MASE: A Challenged Network
    • Poor and erratic links
    • Frequent unpredictable disruptions
  • DTN Style Data Delivery
    • Resilient to path disconnections
    • Efficient use of bandwidth
  • System Management
    • DTS viable tool for system management for challenged networks
  • The Future
whats next
Whats Next?
  • Have a tool that works
    • Understand conceptually why it works better
  • We have a high level analysis: per link bandwidth
  • Network is being pulled out in Feburary
work in progress
Work in Progress
  • Need better network characterization
    • Long-Distance 802.11b Links: Performance Measurements and Experience, K. Chebrolu, B. Raman, S. Sen – ITT Kanpur, Mobicom 2006
    • Use their driver to collect per packet: received signal strength, silence value, MAC packet type & subtype, CRC check succeeded or not, MAC address information, MAC sequence number information
    • Is our network different then theirs? Antennas, chipsets are the same. Our network is not always way up high… and do not have good link quality all the time.
  • Coordinated IP level dumps on entire network
    • Can’t stop data flow
    • Synchronize dumps between nodes
    • Coordinate with driver information
    • How do the long links affect the transfers?
    • Huge hidden terminal problem, does rts/cts seem to help?

Vinayak analyzed received signal strength (RSS) for a single source-destination

pair in the UNAM line.

Max RSS: -46dBm (~83% of data) Min RSS: -81dBm (~10% of data)

Difference of 35dB

Max/Min for IIT-Kanpur's -70dBm / -90dBm

Difference of 20dB

Next do this on Cuernavaca line. Maybe it will have higher variation than that

of UNAM.

High variation might be from inter-link interference since RTS-CTS is off

See what RTS-CTS does.

If still high link variation, then Mexico network is intrinsically different from

that in India. May be our network is in between Boston's urban Roofnet

and Kanpur's rural network?

new applications
New Applications
  • DTS and DTN ideas/techniques can (must?) be applied to two new CENS applications
    • GeoNet
    • SHM (Structure Health Monitoring)
geonet rapidly deployable challenged network

AENSbox

GPS

WIFI

Geophone

802.15.4

GeoNet: Rapidly Deployable Challenged Network
  • Platform to support high data rate rapidly deployed large-scale WSN
    • Deploy 100-1000 nodes after event at a separation of 0.5-1Km
  • Software tools for rapid deployment
    • Must make real time decision about sensor location vs. network connectivity tradeoff
    • Need as much feedback from network as possible
  • Power efficient platform such as LEAP needs appropriate software architecture.
  • Network time synchronization when no GPS available
  • Data deliver & system management
  • Take advantage of dual radios?
slide28
SHM
  • SHM framework to improve safety and reliability of aerospace, civil and mechanical infrastructure by detecting damage before it reaches a critical state
  • Initially targeting tall buildings
  • Still a challenged network
    • Building structure (walls, ceilings), people, other networks, ‘stuff’
thank you
Thank you!

Demo!

mlukac@cs.ucla.edu

Thanks to Igor and Derek for all the pictures and diagrams!

Teotihuacan, 2006

mase wireless seismic station
MASE Wireless Seismic Station

15 dBi YAGI or 24 dBi Parabolic 2.4GHz antenna

70 watt solar panel, GPS

mast and guy wires

Quanterra Q330 24-bit digitizer

sensor controller

2.4GHz amp

car battery

CDCC (CENS Data

Communication Controller)

Guralp 3T seismometer

the middle america subduction experiment mase why mexico slab detachment theory
The Middle America Subduction Experiment (MASE). Why Mexico? Slab detachment theory.
  • A subduction zone is an area on Earth where two tectonic plates meet and move towards one another, with one sliding underneath the other and moving down into the mantle, at a speed of several inches per year.
  • Typically, an oceanic plate slides underneath a continental plate, and this often creates a zone with many volcanoes and earthquakes.

B

Ferrari, 2004, Geology

slide33

Similarities of Mexico City and Los Angeles locations

  • LA and Mexico City are major centers of commerce which sit upon compliant sedimentary basins.
  • Both are subject to damaging earthquakes and how earthquakes excite resonant shaking
slide34

Great potential of high station density

  • Achieve 20 times better resolution than before.
  • Provide visualization of the upper mantle and the subduction process, coast to coast across Mexico.
  • The data collected is very valuable to scientists in seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, geology, computational geodynamics, geophysics, and others