microbial diseases of the digestive system n.
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MICROBIAL DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. MOUTH. Over 300 types of bacteria Dental caries Periodontal disease Gingivitis Periodontitis. DENTAL CARIES. Dental plaque Accumulation of microorganisms and their products (dental plaque) Streptococcus mutans Actinomyces spp.

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MICROBIAL DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


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    1. MICROBIAL DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

    2. MOUTH • Over 300 types of bacteria • Dental caries • Periodontal disease • Gingivitis • Periodontitis

    3. DENTAL CARIES • Dental plaque • Accumulation of microorganisms and their products (dental plaque) • Streptococcus mutans • Actinomyces spp.

    4. DENTAL CARIES (cont.) • Attachment • Colonization • Sugar (glucose+fructose) • Glucose > dextran • Fructose > lactic acid

    5. Enamel

    6. DENTAL CARIES (cont.) • Lactic acid softens enamel • Initial, S. mutans • Advance, Lactobacillus spp. • Pulp infection

    7. DENTAL CARIES (cont.) • Treatment • Root canal therapy • Penicillin • Prevention • Fluoride • Reduced sucrose in diet • Brushing and flossing • Professional cleaning

    8. PERIODONTAL DISEASE • Inflammation of teeth-supporting tissue • Gingivitis • Gums inflammation (bleeding)

    9. PERIODONTAL DISEASE (cont.) • Streptococci, actinomyces and gram-negative bacteria • Prevented by brushing & flossing

    10. PERIODONTITIS • Chronic gingivitis • 10% of teeth loss • Affects bone • Surgery and cleaning

    11. LOWER DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • Infections • Salmonellosis • Intoxications • Staphylococcus aureus

    12. Practice that contributed to food-borne disease (1988-1992) 1. Improper holding temperature 2. Poor personal hygiene of food handlers 3. Food obtained from an unsafe source was the least commonly reported factor

    13. Syndrome • A group of symptoms that together are characteristic of a specific disease

    14. Gastrointestinal Syndrome • Gastroenteritis associated with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea

    15. Dysentery syndrome • Any infectious disease of the large intestine marked by ulceration, hemorrhagic diarrhea with mucus and often blood

    16. GASTROENTERITIS • Inflammation of the stomach and intestinal mucosa

    17. GASTROENTERITIS (cont.) • Abdominal cramps • Nausea • Vomiting • Dehydration

    18. GASTROENTERITIS (cont.) • E. coli • Shigella spp. • Salmonella spp. • Campylobacter spp. • Staphylococcus aureus • Rotavirus • Norwalk virus (Noro virus)

    19. Routes of exposure to enteric pathogens • Fecal contamination (human/animal) • Food • Water • Fomites (doorknobs, telephones) • Direct contact

    20. Petting zoos

    21. Non-traditional pets

    22. Pest animals

    23. Population at risk

    24. Occupational risk

    25. STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING • S. aureus survives 30 min at 60o C (140o F) • High salt concentration • Skin and nasal mucosa • Facultative anaerobes-Coagulase positive

    26. STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING (cont.) • Temperature abuse • Food let to cool slowly • Organisms grow producing toxin

    27. STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING (cont.) • High risk foods • Custards • Cream pies • Ham

    28. STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING (cont.) • Toxin affects brain’s vomiting reflex • Abdominal cramps • Diarrhea

    29. SALMONELLOSIS

    30. Salmonella spp. • Gram negative rods • Facultative anaerobe • 2000 serovars

    31. SALMONELLOSIS (cont.) • S. dublin • S. enteritidis • S. typhimurium • S. cholerasuis

    32. SALMONELLOSIS (cont.) • Domestic animals • Poultry • Swine • Cattle • Dogs and cats

    33. SALMONELLOSIS (cont.) • Wild animals • Rodents • reptiles • Terrapins (turtles)

    34. SALMONELLOSIS (cont.) • Incubation of 12 - 36 h • Intestinal mucosa • Lymphatic and cardiovascular systems

    35. SALMONELLOSIS (cont.) • Fever • Nausea • Abdominal pain • Cramps • Diarrhea

    36. SALMONELLOSIS (cont.) • Mortality among infants and the elderly • Many shed Salmonella for 6 months • Many animals are chronic carriers

    37. SALMONELLOSIS (cont.) • Treatment • Rehydration • Antibiotics prolong carrier state and increase resistance

    38. TYPHOID FEVER • Salmonella typhi • Rare in animals! • Incubation • 2 weeks

    39. TYPHOID FEVER (cont.) • High fever (104o F) • Continual headache • Constipation more common than diarrhea • 10% fatality rate

    40. TYPHOID FEVER (cont.) • Many recovered patients become carriers (Typhoid Mary) • Obligatory case report in most states and countries • Lifelong immunity

    41. TYPHOID FEVER (cont.) • Treatment • Cephalosporins • Chloramphenicol • Amoxillin

    42. Shigellosis

    43. SHIGELLOSIS (Bacillary dysentery) • Shigella spp. • Gram negative facultative anaerobic rod • Only infects humans • Low infectious dose • Resistant to low stomach pH

    44. SHIGELLOSIS (cont.) • S. sonnei • Most common in the USA • Least severe • S. dysenteriae • Uncommon in the USA • Most severe

    45. SHIGELLOSIS (cont.) • Shiga toxin • Inhibits protein synthesis • Diarrhea with blood and mucus (dysentery)

    46. SHIGELLOSIS (cont.) • 20,000- 25,000 cases/year • 5 to 15 deaths • Treatment • Rehydration • Fluoroquinolones (severe cases)