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Digestive System Diseases/complications . Alex Ford, Jenna Volpe, Alexa Mastriano , & Alexis Tomaszewski. Crohn’s Disease . Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Inflammation of lining of Digestive system. Can lead to abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, and even malnutrition.

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digestive system diseases complications

Digestive System Diseases/complications

Alex Ford, Jenna Volpe, AlexaMastriano, & Alexis Tomaszewski

crohn s disease
Crohn’s Disease
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • Inflammation of lining of Digestive system.
  • Can lead to abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, and even malnutrition.
  • Inflammation often spreads deep into the layers of the affected bowl tissues.
  • Most common places for Crohn’s disease are the colon, and the last part of the small intestines (ileum)
  • Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, blood in stool, ulcers, reduced appetite, weight loss, and many more. (Children can have growth problems.
  • Risk Factors : Age, Ethnicity, family history, cigarette smoking, and environment.
  • Complications: Bowel obstruction, Ulcers, Fistulas, Anal Fissure, Malnutrition, colon cancer, and many other problems.
crohn s disease cont
Crohn’s Disease (cont.)
  • There is no cure for Crohn’s Disease.
  • Treatments for this disease includes Anti- inflammatory drugs, Immune system suppressors, Antibiotics, and surgery.
  • Inflammation of appendix.
  • Inflammation is due from the build-up of thick mucus within the appendix or to stool that enters the appendix from the cecum. (The end of the large intestines) or from the swelling of the lymphatic tissue blocking the opening of the appendix.
  • Pain begins around navel and shifts down to your lower right abdomen. (pain increases over a period of 12-18 hours)
  • Between ages 10-30; Most common.
  • Symptoms: Abdominal Pain(right side), increasing pain, Tenderness in right abdomen, Nausea, vomiting, constipation, low-grade fever, etc.
  • Complications: ruptured appendix, and a pocket of pus that forms in the abdomen.
  • Treatments: Surgery (Appendectomy) and Draining an abscess before appendix surgery. (to keep it under control)
appendicitis cont
Appendicitis (cont.)


pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic Cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer is a disease where cancerous cells form in the tissues of the pancreas.
  • Spreads rapidly even when detected early.
  • Symptoms: Upper abdominal pain that goes to your back, yellowing of skin (jaundice), loss of appetite, weight loss, depression, blood clots, etc.
  • Risk Factors: Smoking, Family history, Chronic Pancreatitis, Race, Diabetes, Obesity, Age, and genetic syndromes.
stages of pancreatic cancer
Stages of Pancreatic Cancer

Stage 2

Stage 1

Stage 3

Stage 4

  • Various treatments for Pancreatic Cancer such as surgery, chemotherapy, and Radiation.
  • Pancreatic cancer can be described as:
  • Resectable- Cancer hasn’t spread and might all be removable. (only 10% of patient’s cancer is resectable)
  • Locally advanced(nonresectable)- the cancer has spread into the blood vessels, tumor can not be removed safely.
  • Metastatic- Spread to other organs, surgery will not help.
  • If resectable they undergo a procedure called “Whipple Procedure”, a very difficult and complicated procedure.
  • Cancer is often diagnosed after it has advanced and spread.
  • Later throughout the cancer, chemotherapy helps by controlling the painful and uncomfortable symptoms.
  • Lowest survival rate.
celiac disease
Celiac Disease
  • A condition that damages the lining of the small intestines(small hair like projections; villi) and prevents it from absorbing parts of food to maintain a healthy body.
  • Immune reaction to gluten.
  • Intestinal damage can cause weight loss, bloating, and diarrhea, eventually your brain, nervous system, liver, and other organs can be deprived due to vital nourishment.
  • Only about 1/3 of people diagnosed experience diarrhea, others experience more serious symptoms. (Anemia, osteoporosis, etc.)
  • Complications: Malnutrition, Loss of calcium and bone density, infertility and miscarriage, lactose intolerance, and cancer.
  • Treatments: Strict gluten-free diet.
colon cancer
Colon Cancer
  • Cancer in the large intestines (colon)
  • Begin as small benign clumps of cells called adenomatous polyps, and overtime they can become cancerous.
  • Symptoms: diarrhea or constipation, rectal bleeding, abdominal discomfort, weakness or fatigue, and weight loss.
  • Causes: Precancerous growths in the colon, and inherited gene mutations that increase the risk of colon cancer.
  • Risk Factors: Old age, African-American race, personal history, inflammatory intestinal conditions, family history, high-fat diet/low fiber, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes, obesity, smoking, alcohol, and radiation.
colon cancer cont
Colon Cancer (cont.)
  • Testing/Diagnosis
  • Polyps produce a few to no symptoms. Doctors recommend regular screening to detect and prevent polyps from turning into cancer.
  • Colonoscopy- uses a long, flexible tube attached to a video camera and monitor to view entire colon and rectum. If anything looks alarming, doctors will attach a tool to take tissue samples.
  • Treatments
  • The type of treatment depends on the stage of the cancer, the three main treatments are surgery, chemotherapy and radiation.
irritable bowel syndrome ibs
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Common disorder that affects your large intestines(colon)
  • No permanent damage.
  • Symptoms: Abdominal pain, cramping, bloated feeling, gas, diarrhea, constipation, and mucus in stool.
  • Causes: abnormalities in muscle contraction of the intestines, abnormalities in nervous system, abnormal serotonin levels, or not the right balance of good bacteria, certain foods, stress, and hormones.
  • Risk Factors: Gender (more women are diagnosed), Age, and family history.
ibs cont
IBS (cont.)
  • Treatments:
  • Focuses on the relief of symptoms so you can live as normally as possible.
  • Can control mild symptoms by managing stress, and making changes in your lifestyle and diet.
  • If the symptoms are more moderate and severe, the doctor may suggest fiber supplements, Anti-diarrheal medications, eliminating high-gas foods, Anticholinergic medications, Antidepressants medications, and counseling.
  • .
gastroesophageal reflux disease gerd
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease(GERD)
  • Chronic digestive disease where stomach acid or bile flows back into your food pipe.
  • Symptoms: Chest pain, difficulty swallowing, dry cough, sore throat, acid reflux, sensation of lump in the throat, heartburn sometimes spreading to the throat alone with a sour taste in mouth.
  • Causes: frequent acid reflux- the esophageal sphincter opens and closes the valves when eating and drinking, with GERD the valve is weak or abnormal allowing acid to flow back.
  • The irritation of the lining of the esophagus can cause inflammation which can eventually lead to bleeding and breathing problems.
  • Risk Factors: Obesity, Hiatal Hernia, pregnancy, smoking, dry mouth, asthma, diabetes, delayed stomach emptying, connective tissue disorders, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
  • Treatments: Medications and sometimes surgery.