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WINTER 2012. Vagabonds Tramping through Geology : Austin to the Arctic. GEOLOGY & TRAVEL. GEOLOGY & TRAVEL. What’s the linkage??. Proposition: GEOLOGY is the main reason for most travel destinations . Mountain biking/hiking, downhill skiing, breath-taking vistas,

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

WINTER 2012

Vagabonds Tramping through Geology: Austin to the Arctic

slide3

GEOLOGY & TRAVEL

What’s the linkage??

Proposition: GEOLOGY is the main reason for most travel destinations

  • Mountain biking/hiking, downhill skiing, breath-taking vistas,
  • Ski resorts, river cruises, tour dams
  • Water skiing on lakes/ponds,
  • Ocean cruises, island hoping,
  • Waterfalls, gorges

MOUNTAINS

VALLEYS

GLACIERS, EROSION, VALLEYS

TECTONIC PLATE MOVEMENT, VOLCANOS

FAULTING, EROSION

slide4

GEOLOGY & TRAVEL

What’s the linkage??

Proposition: GEOLOGY is the main reason for most travel destinations

  • Local soils…local ecology…local plant/ animal life…
  • different hunting/fishing environments,
  • different type crops & vineyards,
  • different grasses grown…different type herds raised…milk/cheese manuf.
slide5

CLASS OBJECTIVES

  • Understand the Geologic Processes that shape our planet
  • Understand past Geologic Events that formed our continent
  • Understand the Geology of the Pacific Northwest
  • Understand the linkages between Geology & Travel in your own travels
  • Share our passion for Geology & Travel and pass that on to your kids/grandkids/great-grandkids

So, let’s get Crack-a-lacking!

slide6

EARTH

  • HOW BIG IS IT?
  • WHAT IS IT MADE OF?
  • HOW & WHY DO PLATES MOVE?
slide7

HOW BIG IS EARTH?

7,940 mi

(24,901 mi in circumference)

(in 80 days = 13mph)

slide8

Crust

(solid)

25 mi

Upper Mantle

(partially molten)

415 mi

Lower Mantle

(solid)

1385 mi

Outer Core

(liquid)

1400 mi

Inner Core

(solid)

760 mi

What is EARTH made of?

slide10

Two Types of Crust

Continental Crust: under the continents;

From 20 to 50 miles thick

continental lithosphere consists mainly of felsic crust and is lighter than the oceanic lithosphere

Oceanic Crust: under the oceans; About 5 miles thick

Oceanic lithosphere consists mainly of mafic crust and ultramafic mantle (peridotite) and is denser than continental lithosphere

slide12

TYPES OF TECTONIC PLATE BOUNDARIES

Convergent (subduction)

Divergent (spreading)

Transform (slipping)

plates 2006 atlas of plate reconstructions 750 ma to present day

PLATES 2006 Atlas of Plate Reconstructions(750 Ma to Present Day)

By L.A. Lawver, I.W.D. Dalziel, and L.M. Gahagan

2007, University of Texas Institute for Geophysics

March 8, 2007

See Show

slide16

WHY DO PLATES MOVE?

  • 1 - DRAGGING
  • Inner Core – Lots of Heat (radioactive decay) 9,700
  • Heat migrates thru inner & outer core, lower mantle, to the upper mantle
  • Heat circulates in the upper mantle, much like boiling water in a pot, and as it circulates, it drags the plates sitting on top it
slide17

3 Likely Circulation Patterns

Alternative 2:

Whole Mantle Mixes?

Alternative 1:

2 Layer Convection?

Alternative 3:

Occasional Mixing?

Crust

Upper Mantle

Lower Mantle

Core

slide18

Mantle Heat Convection Model

with Plate Subduction

Crust

Subduction Zone

Mantle

Heat Circulation

Core

See video

slide19

ANOTHER CAUSE OF MOVEMENT – SPREADING

  • At certain places on the Earth’s crust, there are cracks that extend all the way down to the upper mantle
  • Upper mantle material oozes from those cracks, forming new crustal plate material as it cools
  • This new plate material is pushed out of the way by new upper mantle material oozing out. This pushing motion causes the new material to “spread”

Older rocks

Older rocks

Younger rocks

ATLANTIC OCEAN

slide21

GEOLOGIC TIMESCALE

4 Principle Eon’s of Earth’s Time

Earth Formed

4650 mya

This is known as PRECAMBRIAN time

Only this time period is subdivided into details of Geologic Time

slide29

GEOLOGY OVERVIEW – Part 1

WHAT HAVE WE TALKED ABOUT?

  • Quick overview of earth’s geological makeup
  • Earth is approximately _____ miles in diameter; and approx what temp in the core ______deg F
  • There are ___ types of CRUST: the __________ & ________
  • The Crust is made up of ___ main plates; the largest is the _______ plate (this plate makes up the “Ring of Fire”)
  • ____Types of plate boundaries: __________, __________, and
  • Due to Plate Tectonics, North America was ______ miles below the equator ______ mya

8,000

9,700

Oceanic

Continental

2

7

Pacific

Divergent

Convergent

3

Transform

2,000

600

slide30

GEOLOGY OVERVIEW – Part 1

On to

Geology & Travel!

REMEMBER…

GEOLOGY ROCKS

slide31

GEOLOGY OVERVIEW – Part 1

All class materials either is or

will be on

1) the University’s website

and on

2) Don’s Website at:

www.donbeaumont.weebly.com

ANY QUESTIONS??