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Vagabonds tramping through Geology Africa PowerPoint Presentation
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Vagabonds tramping through Geology Africa

Vagabonds tramping through Geology Africa

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Vagabonds tramping through Geology Africa

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  1. Vagabonds tramping through Geology Africa Session 6 The Country of South Africa Focus on the Destruction of Gondwana Egypt and South Africa: why so different? The Orange and Vaal Rivers Geology in the News

  2. More on the Bakkan Oil Shale from the Wall Street Journal, Feb. 26. 1010 Bakkan oil more difficult of extract than gas from the Barnett Shale Bakkan estimated reserves 4.5 rather than 20 + billion barrels Now to the huge oil discovery in the deep Atlantic of Brazil Bakkan economics requires $50.00/bbl rather then $16.00/bbl

  3. Email commentary: “Obama under writes offshore oil drilling in Brazil” signed an executive order to loan $2 billion of our taxpayers dollars The oil that comes from this operation is for the sole purpose and use of China and NOT THE USA! We have absolutely no gain from this transaction whatsoever! the largest individual stockholder of this Brazilian Oil Company and who would benefit most from this? It is American BILLIONAIRE, George Soros, who was one of President Obama's most generous financial supporter during his campaign. Massive deep-water oil find in Brazil challenges technology

  4. Pundits recently criticized the Obama administration for a $2 billion deal with Petrobras, the oil giant owned by the Brazilian government.  The money will help finance oil exploration... off the coast of Brazil.  You think the real truth about the deal couldn't be stranger than the truth we see on the face of it?  Think again. The deal is part of a financing package arranged by the Export-Import Bank of the United States, an arm of the federal government.  it's not a gift as has been erroneously reported and repeated. It is financing provided to purchase equipment and services from American companies that will help Brazil find oil off their coast Back to southern Africa and the country of South Africa http://www.rbpierce.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=78:us-promotes-offshore-drilling-in-brazil&catid=35:uncategorized&Itemid=54

  5. Today, three questions: • Did the red, iron color of the • sand dunes of Namibia come • from the Orange River drainage system? 2. Why did South Africa fail to develop an early civilization like its mirror image, Egypt? South Africa is in the Temperate climate zone It has a significant river drainage all in the Temperate Zone It is about the same distance as Egypt from the Cradle of the advent of humans It has copper and tin which Egypt does not have It has iron and coal while Egypt has only iron • Can South Africa become a world “power” since it • seems to have all the required natural resources?

  6. Egypt and South Africa Nile River Two Lands Two Oceans Two Rivers Tropics What’s different between the Nile and the Orange rivers? Orange River

  7. Low land with flood plain What’s different between the Nile and the Orange rivers? High land with no flood plain

  8. Gateway to the whole world! A melting pot of peoples End of the world! Isolated hill country people

  9. Natural Resources Flood plain Iron Are the resources of South Africa sufficient to build a major player on the world stage? Copper & Tin Iron & Coal Many other metals

  10. Critical Natural Resources Southern Africa The Central Rift Fault Area Study Area #1 Central Rift Fault Area; Study Area 1 Summary 1. Pre-Cambrian: grazing 2. Centered in Tanzania 3. Cu and Sn ores 4. headwaters of Nile, Congo, and Zambezi rivers 5. no major flood plains Conclusions: Area unfavorable for early major civilizations No obvious modern expectations Next: Study Area # 2 Focus: South Africa

  11. The Highlands of Southern Africa The regional geological location of the country of South Africa Tropics Study Area #2 South Africa

  12. The Regional Setting of the Country of South Africa Zaire Basin The Karoo Basin: the drainage area of the Orange and Vaal rivers Study Area #2 Topography of Southern Africa A basin much older than others in study area #2 Karoo Basin South Africa

  13. Rivers of Africa Nile River Niger River Congo River Drainage Area: Orange & Vaal Rivers Zambezi River Orange-Vaal rivers Limpopo River

  14. Drainage Area: Orange & Vaal Rivers Tanzania Younger Rocks Pre-Cambrian Botswana Karoo Basin http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1997/ofr-97-470/OF97-470A/AFRICA.pdf

  15. The Rivers of Area #2 Zambezi River Cubango River Limpopo River Vaal River Karoo Basin Orange River Next: South Africa: Its Rivers, Geology, & Resources

  16. Rivers of South Africa Limpopo River Orange River drainage area Let’s look at the geology of the rocks of the Karoo Basin & see what type of soils are being produced by weathering Karoo Basin Do any of these rivers provide favorable areas for farming? River drainage areas are outlined in white

  17. Geologic Map of South Africa Geologic Map close-up

  18. South Africa: Geologic Map & Two Major Rivers Pre-Cambrian Vaal River Mz Igneous Pre-Cambrian Orange River Permian Triassic Folded Mountains Sil-Ord Devonian

  19. Geologic Time Diagram Time of the break-up of Pangea Rocks In the Karoo Basin “Post”- Cambrian Pre-Cambrian Time 3.4 Billion years Rocks In the Folded mountains

  20. Geologic Rock Types in the Karoo Basin Pre-Cambrian Sandstone Volcanic lavas Shale Now the subdivisions of the rocks comprising the Karoo Basin

  21. Names of Karoo Basin Rocks Lavas River Debris River Source Lavas Now a North – South Cross Section across the Karoo Basin

  22. Jurassic lavas 200 mm years old Debris from a major river In Permian & Triassic time 15,000 feet Karoo Basin Deformation here and lava flows here document continental break-up in Triassic and Jurassic time Another view of the deformation of the south side of the Karoo Basin

  23. Stormberg Group(including basalts) Beaufort Gp = terrestrial Ecca Gp = Dwyka Gp = glacial marine Cape Super Gp = late Ord to Carb Basin rocks are folded and crushed on south side Karoo Basin When and how was this deformation done? D LCole - Inversion Tectonics of the Cape Fold Belt, Karoo and …, 1992 - books.google.comInversion Tectonics of the Cape Fold Belt,

  24. Karoo Basin Topography Karoo Basin: 250 mm year old sedimentary rocks remnants of old geosyncline river fill from ancestral Limpopo River? old geosyncline crushed & folded Orange-Vaal rivers formed basin uplifted by “rift” action? Orange river entrenched Orange River Karoo Basin

  25. The Continental Drift History of the Karoo Basin Karoo Basin

  26. The continental drift history of the Karoo Basin A closer look http://www.scotese.com

  27. The continental drift history of the Karoo Basin: 306 MYC Southern Africa about to collide with southern South America South America Africa Shallow water ocean Next: 50 million years later http://www.scotese.com

  28. The continental drift history of the Karoo Basin And 25 million years later Africa now all land area Africa now part of super continent Pangea http://www.scotese.com

  29. The Continental Drift History of the Karoo Basin A closer look Remember the Karoo Basin? Africa After http://www.scotese.com

  30. Early Triassic Time: 237 mm years ago Africa A closer look Karoo Basin http://www.scotese.com

  31. The Continental Drift History of the Karoo Basin: 237 MYC Africa Karoo Basin And 40 million years later

  32. The Continental Drift History of the Karoo Basin A closer look Drakensberg lavas After http://www.scotese.com

  33. The Continental drift history of the Karoo Basin: 195 MYC Africa beginning to break apart from South America and Antarctica Karoo Basin deformed Drakensberg lavas 40 million years later After http://www.scotese.com

  34. The continental drift history of the Karoo Basin The African break apart from South America and Antarctica continues and Africa rotates toward the equator where is lies today 60 million years later http://www.scotese.com

  35. The Continental Drift History of the Karoo Basin http://www.scotese.com And 45 million years later The breakup and the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean

  36. The Continental Rift History of the Karoo Basin And 35 million years later Central Africa on the equator http://www.scotese.com

  37. The Continental Drift History of the Karoo Basin Last, the recent ice age Central Africa on the equator Uplift of Rift Area and Namibia http://www.scotese.com

  38. The continental drift history of the Karoo Basin Back to the Karoo Basin, the Orange River, and the country of South Africa The beginning of written human history http://www.scotese.com

  39. The Natural Resources of South Africa Vaal River Orange River Focus on the river resources

  40. Temperate Zone Wheat Corn Grazing

  41. South Africa: Orange/Vaal River Flood Plain Farming Vaal River Flood Plain Farming area Orange River Flood Plain Farming up close

  42. Vaal River: Flood Plain Farming Vaal River

  43. Mouth of the Orange River

  44. Flood Plain at Mouth of Orange River No farming

  45. Farming East of Cape Town

  46. Farming East of Cape Town

  47. Temperate Zone Wheat Corn Grazing