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Permeable Paving. Low Impact Development (LID). Low impact development  (LID) is an approach to managing stormwater runoff to protect water quality. Permeable Pavements. Permeable pavements are recognized as a Best Management Practice (BMP) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

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low impact development lid
Low Impact Development (LID)
  • Low impact development (LID) is an approach to managing stormwater runoff to protect water quality
permeable pavements
Permeable Pavements
  • Permeable pavements are recognized as a Best Management Practice (BMP) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • A cornerstone of low impact development (LID) design
non permeable pavements
Non-Permeable Pavements
  • Increased runoff
  • Deprives groundwater
  • Pollutants
    • Non-point source
non permeable pavements1
Non-Permeable Pavements
  • 1990s average was about 30,000 miles of paving per year
  • Parking lots affect microclimates of city climates
non permeable pavements2
Non-Permeable Pavements
  • U.S. federal law mandates that states control water pollution in runoff through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
advantages of permeable pavers
Advantages of Permeable Pavers
  • Increases the water quality
  • Increases groundwater
  • Reduces installation costs of drainage system
  • Reduces storm water runoff
  • Reduces flooding
  • Reduces erosion
permeable pavers
Permeable pavers
  • PICP (also called permeable segmental pavers) are non-porous, solid blocks made of brick, stone, clay or concrete
permeable pavers1
Permeable pavers
  • Initially, infiltration is over 50-75in/hr.
  • Reduce by around 50% in the first 5 years.
    • Over a 20-year period, PICP’s are designed to achieve and maintain a consistent 3in/hr infiltration rate
permeable pavers2
Permeable pavers
  • No sand used in joints
    • Clog pores
permeable pavers3
Permeable pavers
permeable pavers4
Permeable pavers
  • Cleaning should be done at least once a year
  • Removed by a vacuum-sweeping street cleaning machine
permeable interlocking concrete pavements
Permeable interlocking concrete pavements
  • A North Carolina State University study has shown that the initial surface infiltration rate of PICPs can be as high as 2,000 in./hour. Other research has shown that near initial surface infiltration rates can be restored through cleaning and replacement of the initial 3/4 to 1 in. depth of small stones in the openings of PICPs.
permeable interlocking concrete pavements1
Permeable interlocking concrete pavements
  • Ice and snow can melt into the pavement
  • Water does not collect on the surface and re-freeze
  • Reduces slipping hazards
permeable interlocking concrete pavements2
Permeable interlocking concrete pavements
  • Sand should not be used for traction
    • Deicing salts can
  • Adequate space for the ice to expand within the open-graded base
    • Minimizing the risk of heaving.
pervious asphalt and concrete
Pervious Asphalt and Concrete
  • Stone aggregate is held together with either asphalt or cement
  • Angular crushed stone, usually 3/8”, excluding fines that normally fill voids
    • Porous
pervious asphalt and concrete1
Pervious Asphalt and Concrete

Ice doesn’t normally form in the paving or on the surface

pervious asphalt and concrete2
Pervious Asphalt and Concrete
  • Pervious paving may cost 10% more than conventional asphalt
  • Doubling as a stormwater system and eliminating storm drains, save 12% to 38%
  • Reduces retention ponds
    • Land area saved that would be used for basins
pervious asphalt and concrete3
Pervious Asphalt and Concrete

Snow melts quickly and drains

Soil around any porous installation must percolate minimum rate ½” per hour

Contain no more than 30% clay

pervious asphalt and concrete4
Pervious Asphalt and Concrete
  • Most researchers found that proper design, installation and maintenance can prevent loss of porosity over time
  • Minor loss of porosity occurs in all porous materials over the first four to six years
  • One test, an inch of loose fine was applied
    • Full porosity was easily restore by a cleaning with a HydroVac
porous asphalt
  • Formulated with larger aggregate and less fine particles
    • “Open-graded” surface drains and supports traffic
  • Single-sized aggregate particles leave open voids (typically between 25-35%) that give the material its porosity and permeability.
porous asphalt1
  • Beneath its surface, underlying stone reservoir that then filters water directly into the underlying soil, or storm-drain system
porous asphalt2
  • Asphalt version originally developed for airport runways
    • prevents dangerous surface ponding
  • Reservoir supports the porous surface and hold precipitation until it can percolate into the soil
    • Shallow as nine inches on some well-drained soils
porous asphalt3
  • Using crushed rock open graded to about two inches in size, almost 40% of the reservoir’s total volume will be waterholding voids
  • Choker course of half inch gravel is laid on top
cool asphalt
Cool asphalt
  • Increase pavements reflectiveness
    • Albedo
  • Asphalt can be lightened
  • Asphacolor
    • Colored at plant
pervious concrete
  • Grainier and less smooth than traditional concrete
  • Controlled amounts of water and cement materials bound with large aggregate particles
  • Contains little or no fines
    • Substantial void space between 25-35%
    • Runoff coefficient close to zero
    • Underlying stone reservoir
pervious concrete1
  • Porous concrete withstands heavier and more repeated loads than porous asphalt
  • Does not soften under heat
grass pave
Grass Pave

Grass will not survive daily traffic

Grass for parking stays healthy if used not more than about one day a week, less in dry climates

grass pavers
  • Open-cell unit paver in which the cells are filled with soil and filled with turf or gravel
  • Comprised of a grid system, which is made of concrete or synthetic to distribute the weight of traffic
  • Appropriate for
    • Foot traffic
    • Overflow parking
    • Driveway
grass pave1
Grass Pave
  • Overflow parking
grass pave2
Grass Pave
  • Fine gravel, oyster shells, or other permeable material can substitute for grass for more frequent parking
grass pave3
Grass Pave
  • Use mix of sand and water polymers
cost comparison
  • Asphalt: $0.50 to $1 per square foot
  • Grass/Gravel Pavers: $1.50 to $5.75 per square foot
  • Porous Concrete: $2.00 to $6.50 per square foot
  • Interlocking Concrete Paver Blocks: $5.00 to $10.00 per square foot
green streets
Green Streets
  • Manage water at source
  • Infiltrate water where it hits the ground
  • Reduce downstream flows by at least 80%

Manage water at the surface

  • Allow for evapotranspiration


  • Aesthetically pleasing