Culminating Project Shannon Moughan MCED 63995 Spring 2012
Background • Kyle • DOB 1-10-06 • Only child • Entered program 8/2011 • Attends preschool 2 days a week • Goes to babysitter 5 days a week • Typically developing
Patterns of Strength Kyle’s strengths lie within his gross-motor skills and certain adaptive skills. His pre-academic skills are within typical development. Kyle consistently walks and runs while avoiding obstacles. He always ascends and descends stairs using alternating feet. His skipping, hopping and catching skills are emerging and fall within appropriate development for his age, readiness and cultural expectations. Looking at his strengths, I can tell Kyle enjoys participating in physical movement such as; playing basketball, running the bases and playing two-handed catch with a soft ball. Kyle has also been observed consistently carrying out toileting functions independently. He is able to vocalize when he needs to go to the bathroom and only requires assistance with fine-motor skills attached to this skill such as, turning the faucet on/off and pumping the soap dispenser. He can zip and unzip his backpack and put his coat on independently. Through observation and family report I can tell that Kyle carries out these functions independently at home as well. Kyle can recognize his name and his color/shape recognition fall within typical development for his age and developmental readiness. His letter recognition is beginning to emerge and he can identify several letters in his name in other forms of print.
What does this mean for Kyle? • Active, hands-on instruction helps keep him engaged and on task • Incorporating movement into curriculum will help him participate • Pre-academic skills like letter recognition, shape and color identification fall within appropriate developmental range
Patterns of Unexpected Developmental Sequences • Mastered 2.3 & 3.3 Looks at appropriate object, person, or event during small/large group activities (AEPS) • Emerging 2.4 & 3.4 Remains with group during large/small group activities (AEPS)
What does this mean for Kyle? • Making sure that Kyle is looking at the book that is being read, the person that is speaking or watching as directions are being given will help make sure that he attends to the right stimulus, therefore keeping engaged and staying with the large group
Patterns of Lack of Quality Kyle has exhibited several skills that lack quality. Some of his fine-motor skilled activities like cutting, writing, using his thumb and pointer finger, turning knobs on faucets or pressing certain buttons appear to be emerging but need continued practice. He can accomplish holding crayons and pencils with the support of proper hand and finger placement through hand-over-hand assistance. Kyle’s scissor skills are continuing to emerge; he can make snips and cuts using adaptive scissors, but requires hand-over-hand assistance when using regular scissors to help him open and close them. Continued practice of finger/hand placement on scissors will help improve his grip and confidence in cutting and snipping. Observation shows that his skills are beginning to progress, but that he needs to strengthen his grip when holding writing instruments and pressing harder on the surface. The lack of quality in these skills does not imply any concern at this time for they fall within typical development according to age, development readiness and cultural expectations.
What does this mean for Kyle? • Kyle would benefit from doing activities to help strengthen his hand muscles like; rolling play-dough, using clothes pins to hang up items on a line, ripping & tearing paper • Using adaptive scissors when cutting • Writing on an easel, chalkboard or slanted surface
Patterns of Assistance Kyle consistently needs help with several adaptive skills such as adjusting quantity of glue and paint when modeled for him. When zipping a coat he can pull the zipper up if it is attached at the bottom. Repeated practice at school and home has strengthened his ability to pull up the hook. When pouring he requires hand over hand placement to help keep it steady. Continued practice and hand-eye coordination development will aid in this process. When brushing his teeth the family reports that he still needs help putting on the toothpaste. This assistance also correlates with the pattern of lack of quality/strength in certain fine-motor skills. Implications from these patterns show that his development is emerging within typical development according to age, developmental readiness and cultural expectations.
What does this mean for Kyle? • Continued practice with strengthening his fine-motor skills will help work on some of his adaptive skills • Praising Kyle when he attempts to zip/unzip on his own will help raise his confidence when working towards certain self-help skills
Patterns of Challenging or Interfering Behaviors Transitions have repeated patterns of challenging/interfering behaviors. Kyle has been observed consistently needing re-direction when moving from one activity to another (large group to center time). The exhibited behaviors include not keeping hands to self, standing in the center of the room and not participating in clean-up and not joining in certain activities like; Music & Movement Class, large group instruction and songs/finger-plays. These activities require sitting for a certain amount of time and singing. Kyle shows difficulty when needing to sit for a time longer than 5 minutes. He is easily distracted and is difficult to shift his attention back to the current activity. His participation in large group activities, like circle time, is limited to sitting for a short period (5 minutes), he distracts easily and prefers to touch the children sitting around him, yelling out random ideas and interrupting the teacher during story time or instruction/direction giving. Kyle needs repeated verbal prompts in order to get back on task. His behavior is interfering with his involvement to remain with the group during large and small group activities and maintaining participation. His behaviors are beginning to interfere with processing information in a timely manner and attending to the correct stimulus during group instruction. These patterns of behavior impact how he transitions from one activity to another, especially when he transitions from one activity he is enjoying to one that is not his favorite. These behaviors are beginning to interfere with his ability to participate, respond and engage in large/small group activities appropriately.
What does this mean for Kyle? • Keeping transitions to a minimum • Using picture schedules to help him with the daily routine • Keeping large group instruction to short amounts of time, with plenty of movement embedded into the curriculum • Using verbal/visual reminders to keep him focused on the activity, story or song
Patterns of Direct Prompts Following two-step and three-step directions require repeated verbal prompts consistently. Picture cards are used to remind Kyle what routines come next and he needs peer support through imitation to follow rules, pick up toys and get in line. Kyle has rarely been observed initiating, starting and finishing an activity or transitioning from one center to another without the need for verbal prompts. Direct prompts are required with familiar and unfamiliar persons and in a variety of settings. The family reports that prompting is needed when completing an activity at home, as well as, transitions, ex: finishing playing, picking up toys and getting ready for bed. Aspects of this pattern imply typical development for his age and developmental readiness. However, the repeated prompting interferes with Kyle’s participation in routine activities like cleaning up, following two-step directions and being able to progress to the next activity.
What does this mean for Kyle? • Continued use of picture cards/schedules to help reinforce Kyle’s understanding of what comes next in the daily routine • Pairing up Kyle with a peer to model appropriate initiation/finishing behaviors • Continued use of peers to model transition skills • Praising Kyle when he is attending to directions, group instruction and initiating an activity
Mastered Working Towards Emerging
Common Patterns Across Skills • Pre-academic skills fall within Tier 1 • Strengths are in gross-motor skills (running, catching a ball), as well as, putting a 5-8 piece puzzle together • Fine motor skills are emerging/require practice, strengthening and some hand over hand assistance • Behaviors interfere with him being able to follow two & three step directions • Beginning and finishing activities require repeated direct prompts • Behaviors are a barrier to Kyle following directions consistently and being able to attend to right stimulus • Behaviors inhibit his ability to initiate and maintain interaction with his peers consistently • Continued need for re-direction during transitions and large/small group instruction • Repeated prompting inhibits his ability to process and attend to information in a timely manner
Assessments • AEPS • New Portage Guide Birth to Six • Observations • Family Report & Questionnaire Assessment Dates: 9/11, 1/12 & 4/12
What skills can we work on to help Kyle be successful?
Findings: Tier 1 Recites finger-plays and songs or repeated phrases from a predictable, patterned book • Learns and sings simple songs • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/ • Creative Self-Expression (New Portage Guide Birth to Six, 2003): • Participates in musical games such as the Hokey Pokey or responds to a music beat
Findings: Tier 1 Answers questions and re-tells parts of a story • Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (Ohio Pre-Kindergarten State Standards, 2012): • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in text • With prompting and support, identify characters and major events in a story • Early Reading (New Portage Guide Birth to Six, 2003): • Takes part in storytelling by saying a repeated phrase of filling in a word
Findings: Tier 1 Identifies letter names • Reading Standard: Foundational Skills (Ohio Pre-Kindergarten State Standards, 2012): • Know and apply grade-level phonics and word-analysis skills in decoding words • Early Reading (New Portage Guide Birth to Six, 2003): • Associates word sounds with letter shapes • Demonstrate a beginning understanding of the link between letters and sounds
Findings: Tier 1 Identifies numbers 1-5 • Mathematics Standard: Counting (Ohio Pre-Kindergarten State Standards, 2012): • Identify and name numerals 1-9 • Early Math (New Portage Guide Birth to Six, 2003): • Recognizes numerals that label
Findings: Tier 1 Cuts paper in two • Purposeful Motor Activity (New Portage Guide Birth to Six, 2003) • Uses scissors to cut paper in two • Bilateral Motor Coordination (AEPS, 2005): • Uses two hands to manipulate objects, each hand performing different movements
Findings: Tier 2 Transitions from one activity to another with 2 or fewer verbal prompts or picture care prompts • Predicting (Big Idea Toolkit, 2002): • Suggests, using verbal and/or non-verbal expressions, what will occur in the future • Following routines independently and completes familiar routines • Multi-step Directions (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2012): • Follows instructions with 2-3 steps • Critical Thinking (New Portage Guide Birth to Six, 2003): • Can tell what activity or routine come next
Findings: Tier 2 Processing & attending to directions, group instruction in a timely manner • Social-Communicative Interactions (AEPS, 2005): • Responds to others’ topic initiations • Participation (AEPS, 2005): • Responds appropriately to directions during small group activities
Findings: Tier 3 Watches, listens, and participates during small & large group activities by attending to the right stimulus • Participating: (Big Idea Toolkit, 2002) • Takes part in activities and the daily routine using verbal and/or non-verbal expressions • Interactions with Others (New Portage Guide Birth to Six, 2003): • Participates in structured small group activities for 10-15 minutes • Participation (AEPS, 2005): • Watches, listens, and participates during large group activities • Responds appropriately to directions during large group activities
LOOK WHAT I CAN DO! Put a puzzle together Build with blocks Paint on the easel Walk on the balance beam Play with my friends Go talk to a friend
References Bricker, D. (2002). Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System (AEPS). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Portage Project. (2003). New Portage Guide Birth to Six. Baltimore, MD:Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Pretti-Frontczak, K., (2005). Jackson, S., McKeen, L., Schuck, E., & Stackhouse, J. Big Ideas Toolkit: Alignment Implementation Process. Kent State University. http://www.ode.state.oh.us/GD/Templates/Pages/ODE (Ohio Department of Education)