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  2. A bit of history… • Old Public health up to late 1800s saw a period of sanitary reform and control of conditions to manage infectious diseases. • Biomedical approach in the 1900s saw a shift to a greater dependence on medical science and its role in preventing diagnosing & treating illness. Health care during this era was based on the idea that every illness had a cure. It was the “fix it” approach. • Preventative approach (new public health) in the 1970s saw an increased awareness about the role lifestyles factors play in influencing our health. It had become clear that many deaths were due to preventable causes.

  3. Social Model of Health. • This is an approach to health care that sees health & disease as a result of social processes. • There is an understanding that there are a range of factors that influence an individual’s health such as access to health care, work, diet, physical activity, housing & socio-economic state. • It refers to the organised response by society to protect & promote health and prevent illness, injury & disease. • It encourages individuals to take more responsibility for their own health & well being through adopting healthier lifestyles. • While the biomedical model of health is still dominant it is now paired with preventative strategies.

  4. Biomedical approach. • Focuses on the medical profession. • Aims to treat the physical or biological aspect of the disease. • Involves diagnosis & intervention. • Fix it model • Examples include X-rays, blood tests, surgery & chemotherapy.

  5. Preventative approach. • Focuses on preventing illness from occurring or returning. • Considers all components of health. • Promotes healthy lifestyles. • The main aim is to stop people becoming ill in the first place or to detect illness at the earliest possible time.

  6. Types of preventive health care. PRIMARY • Prevent the onset of illness • Through education & awareness • Eg. TAC Ads. SECONDARY • Focuses on detection & treatment at the earliest time • Often directed people who are at risk • Eg. Mammogram TERTIARY • Involves treatment, rehabilitation & support who already suffer from disease. • Aimed at increasing quality of life. • Eg. Counselling for a mental illness.

  7. Ottawa Charter. • This is a document that outlines action to achieve health for all by the year 2000 and beyond. • It identified the fundamental conditions & resources needed for health. • These included : peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice & equity.

  8. Ottawa Charter. The five key elements of the charter are : 1. Build Healthy Public Policy. • health care policy 2. Create supportive environments. • Taking care of each other, our communities & environment. 3. Strengthen Community action. • Communities working together. 4. Develop personal skills. • Individuals gaining skills & knowledge. 5. Reorient Health Services. • Health promotion.

  9. Ottawa Charter.

  10. Structure of our Health system. • Three levels of Government: • Commonwealth (Federal) • Medicare & PBS • Develops policies like NHPAS • National/International health issues • State • Operates the bulk of health services like hospitals • Plans & delivers health care • Looks after the environment • Local • Clean public areas • Garbage collection • Meals on wheels

  11. Values of our Health system. Principle of equity Free Choice Health promotion Accessibility* Universality Efficiency Simplicity Affordability* Quality of Care*

  12. Medicare & Private health Insurance. • Medicare • A tax payer funded health insurance scheme. • Aims to provide access to health for all. • Funded by a 1.5% levy on taxable income. • Private Health Insurance • A patient pays. • Enables access to private hospitals & own choice of doctor. • Government rebate (30%)

  13. NHPAs. • National Health Priority Areas. • Focus on factors that contribute most to the morbidity & mortality of Australians. • Are selected because significant gains can be made in these areas.

  14. NHPAs • Cardiovascular Disease • Cancer • Injury • Mental health • Diabetes • Asthma • Arthritis & musculoskeletal conditions

  15. FACTORS THAT AFFECT FOOD CHOICE.Family & Household influence. • The family has the most influence on what a person eats. • The family shapes the individual’s knowledge of food & nutrition. • Parents provide nearly all the food resources for children. • Rules & guidelines in relation to eating times, frequency, eating place, what foods. • Establish clear ideas of acceptable eating patterns. • Culture, family size & structure may also have an influence.

  16. FACTORS THAT AFFECT FOOD CHOICE.Economics, availability & Advertising. • The national economy influences the range of foods imported & exported and affects the availability to the population. • Families need to consider the price of food. • Availability of foods increased due to culture & migration. • Accessibility of foods can be an issue. • Advertising may have some influence on food choice.

  17. FACTORS THAT AFFECT FOOD CHOICE.Perceptions & Knowledge. • Individual’s knowledge of the health effects of food will impact on food choice. • Individuals usually gain most of their nutritional knowledge from family or school • Information on packages is another good source.

  18. FACTORS THAT AFFECT FOOD CHOICE.Technology. • Advances in technology have influenced the range of food available. • Scientific advances have enabled better quality products with greater nutritional value. • Genetically engineered foods. • Convenience & fast food. • Technology in the kitchen has provided individuals with the ability to prepare nutritious meals quickly.

  19. FACTORS THAT AFFECT FOOD CHOICE.Lifestyle factors. • These include : • Work & school commitments. • Recreation & leisure activities. • Social & personal role. • All these factors interact to shape an individual’s & family’s lifestyle. • Examples include working parent and peer influence.

  20. FACTORS THAT AFFECT FOOD CHOICE.Capacity to change. • Many individuals can be resistant to change because it involves : • Acquiring new knowledge & concepts • Learning to accept new ingredients etc. • Learning new methods of preparation. • Lack of motivation could also be a factor.

  21. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. • It was funded by the Commonwealth Department of Health & Family Services as part of the National Food & Nutrition Policy in 1992. • It is based on the dietary guidelines ad RDIs. • The information contained in the guide discusses the 5 food groups, serve sizes, nutritional requirements, sample serves, diet patterns and child & adult information. • It aims to encourage people to choose a healthy & nutritious diet by making the decision making process less complicated. • The basic principles for choosing a healthy diet are based on what makes an individual’s body grow well, perform at it’s best & avoid illness.

  22. Dietary Guidelines. • The guidelines provide advice to the general population about healthy food choices, so that their everyday eating patterns put them at minimal risk of developing diet related diseases. • The healthy eating habits encouraged by the guidelines can help reduce the risk of health problems such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity. • The guidelines summarise current nutritional knowledge based an the relationship between diet & disease, nutrients available in the Australian food supply and the mortality & morbidity rates in Australia.

  23. Dietary Guidelines for Australian Adults.

  24. Eat Well Australia. • The vision of EWA is that by 2010 the nutrition-related health of all Australians will be measurably improved, with marked improvements for indigenous Australians & other vulnerable groups. • It is a coherent national approach to the underlying causes of preventable diet related illnesses & early death, providing a set of inter-linked iniativtives for the preventions & management of these diseases. • Examples of strategic action include promoting fruit & vegie consumption and encouraging healthy weight and food nutrition across various sections of the population.

  25. The role of Non –Government agencies. There are a number of non-government agencies that provide dietary advice to promote healthy eating. • NUTRITION AUSTRALIA • Australia’s primary community nutrition education body. • Healthy Eating Pyramid. • THE HEART FOUNDATION • Improve heart health of Australians • Tick program