the Western or Former Han (206 B.C.–9 A.D.) 西汉/前汉 The Western Han capital, Chang'an in present-day Shaanxi Province 陕西省【Shǎnxīshěng】—a monumental urban center laid out on a north-south axis with palaces, residential areas, and two bustling market areas—was one of the two largest cities in the ancient world (Rome being the other). the Eastern or Later Han (25–220 A.D.) 东汉/后汉 City of Luoyang The two-capital system: What are the advantages? The Two-Han Period 206 BCE–220 CE (about 400 years)
Big Five DynastiesOver 250 years • 国祚【guózuò】 blessing; the throne. • Destiny of a nation • Han-206 BCE – 220 CE • Tang-618–907 • Song-960 and 1279 • Ming-1368 to 1644 • Qing-1644 to 1912
Liu Bang’s reign: 202 BC-195 BC A minor official under the Qin rule, Liu Bang was escorting some convicts or prisoners assigned to Mount Li to build the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang. Overnight, some prisoners escaped. Liu assembled his remaining prisoners, telling them he would free them if they followed him…Then he became a rebel against the Qin Rule. 楚漢相爭 206 BC–202 BCChu–Han Contention (Ebrey 49)刘邦【liúbāng】 the first emperor of Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 220)
The Tragedy of Xiang Yu"Hegemon-King of Western Chu“西楚霸王【xīchǔbàwáng】 • Xiang Yu boasted 400,000 troops • The tragedy of Xiang Yu lies in that as someone whose talents are to be used or utilized by others, Xiang Yu accidently sits on the hot seat to employ others… • Wang Liqun 王立群 • Chinese professor at Henan University
Banquet at Hongmen (206 BCE)Read The Basic Annals of Xiang Yu onlineSima Qian_Xiang Yu vs. Liu Bang • After his victory in the Battle of Julu which wiped out the main Qin army (207 BC), Xiang Yu prepared for an invasion on Guanzhong 关中, the heartland of China. In the winter of 207 BC, the last (3rd) Qin ruler Ziying 子婴 (on the throne for 46 days) surrendered to Liu Bang's army in Xianyang 咸阳. When Xiang Yu arrived at Hangu Pass, the eastern gateway to Guanzhong, he saw that the pass was occupied by Liu Bang's troops, a sign that Guanzhong was already under Liu's control. • Liu's left general Cao Wushang 曹无伤 sent a messenger to see Xiang Yu, reporting that Liu Bang would become King of Guanzhong, with Ziying appointed as Liu's Prime Minister. (80-86)
What makes Xiang Yu?What breaks Xiang Yu? • Mao Kun 茅坤 in the Ming dynasty remarks, while the Battle of Julu (207 BCE) marks the most glorious moment in Xiang Yu’s life; it actually became the most glorious chapter for the Governor of Pei 沛公, now County Pei in Jiangsu Province 江苏【jiāngsū】. • The agreement between Xiang Yu and Liu Bang being that whoever conquered Xianyang 咸阳, capital of Qin, first will be the king…
《孙子兵法· 九地》：“焚舟破 釜，若驱群羊而往，驱而来，莫知所之。” The Art of War 11.39: He burns his boats and breaks his cooking pots; like a shepherd driving a flock of sheep, he drives his men this way and that, and none knows wither he is going. Page 53 After crossing River Zhang, Xiang Yu asked his soldiers to break all their cooking pots and burn all their boats, with each carrying only three days’ rations/food, thus leaving his troops with no options but fight to death; As a result, the Chu army wiped the main Qin army (207 BCE). 破釜沉舟【pòfǔchénzhōu】 break the cauldrons and sink the boats (after crossing)
項莊舞劍 意在沛公 83【xiàngzhuāngwǔjiànyìzàipèigōng】 • Xiang Zhuang performed the sword dance as a cover-up for his attempt on Liu Bang's life - act with a hidden motive. • The Banquet at Hongmen 鸿门宴 refers to a dinner party that harbors evil designs or malicious intentions • Role of Fan Zeng as Xiang Yu’s “Second Father” 亚父
垓下之战【gāixià zhīzhàn】The Battle of Gaixia in 202 BCE • “Oriental Waterloo” at Gaixia, He County, Anhui Province • 四面楚歌: four sides, Chu songs • 【sìmiànchǔgē】 be besieged on all sides; be utterly isolated. • The Battle of Waterloo (18 June 1815) marks a fiasco for Napoleon • 1st Duke of Wellington is instrumental in defeating Napoleon.
Lady Yu joined her voice with his. Tears streamed down his face… 霸王别姬【bàwángbiéjī】 Farewell to My Concubine
My strength plucked up the hills,My might shadowed the world; But the times were against me,And Dapple runs no more; When Dapple runs no more,What then can I do? Ah, Yu, my Yu,What will your fate be? 力拔山兮氣蓋世, 時不利兮騅不逝。 騅不逝兮可奈何！ 虞兮虞兮奈若何！ Song of Gaixia 《垓下歌》
四面楚歌【sìmiànchǔgē】 be besieged on all sides; be utterly isolated • In 202 BC, Han armies led by Liu Bang, Han Xin and Peng Yue attacked Western Chu from three sides and trapped Xiang Yu‘s army, which was low on supplies, in the Battle of Gaixia. Liu ordered his troops to sing folk songs from the Chu region, to create a false impression that Xiang’s native land of Chu had been conquered by the Han forces. The morale of the Chu army plummeted and many of Xiang‘s troops deserted in despair. Xiang sank into a state of depression and he sang the famous Song of Gaixia. His beloved concubine Consort Yu (虞姬) committed suicide. The next morning, Xiang Yu led about 800 of his best cavalry 骑兵 troops on a desperate attempt to break out of the siege, with 5,000 enemy troops hot on pursuit.
The western half was ruled by Liu through a system of local administration, with officials appointed by the emperor In the eastern half, power was held by military strongmen who had followed Liu Bang in his earlier years; Over time, those strongmen began to manifest separatist behavior, as in Zhou’s time. Between 180 to 141 BCE, the emperors wendi and jingdi took measures to curtail the power of those eastern strongmen Potential Problems Embedded in Liu Bang’s Rule
In the ancient times an oath was taken by spreading the blood of a white horse on one’s lips. See Shiji v. 9 on “The Basic Annals of the Empress Lu” Later, with the help of his wife, Liu Bang got rid of those founding generals one by one to strengthen his rule. Han Xin’s story stood out as a classical example It is a deal Liu Bang cut with his (7) founding generals. Liu Bang made them take an oath that only Lius can be kings. In return, Liu Bang enfeoffed them with titles equivalent to a duke in a state. In nature, Liu Bang actually adopted the Western Zhou’s system of enfeoffment. The White-Horse Confederation白马之盟
In 180 BCE, the family of the empress, named Lǚ, gained great power at court and almost usurped the throne before being suppressed. The empress actually ruled for about 15 years. 美人心计【měirén xīnjì】 Beauty's calculation; scheming; planning, cunning. No. 1 TV series at http://tv.sohu.com/hotteleplay/ Usurpation of the Empress Lǚ
The Crown Prince Liu Ying 刘盈 The empress asked help from Zhang Liang, Zhang Liang pointed out only the four famous hermits at Mt. Shang 商山四皓 can dramatically change the situation. They did. Ruyi 如意, son of Liu Bang’s favorite concubine Qi Ji 戚姬 In His Old Age, Liu Bang Changed his Mind
Four Hermits at Mount Shang • 博士【bóshì】 Ph.D; court ‘acade’mician (in feudal China). • These hermits were court academicians under the Qin rule (total 70 “PhDs”) • Tang Bing, Cui Guang, Wu Shi and Zhou Shu • Emperor Wu of Han established 五经博士【wǔjīngbóshì】 court ‘acade’mician (in feudal China, comparable to PhDs) on the Five Classics (The Book of Songs/Documents/Rites/Changes/Spring & Autumn Annals)
In 195 BCE, after Liu Bang died, the empress had Qi Ji’s four limbs cut off, her eyes gouged, and her ears burned; She also made Qi Ji dumb/mute by some drugs. Left in a toilet, Qi Ji was moaning and groaning like a pig… The young emperor Liu Ying could not stand his mother’s cruelty. He quit ruling. 人彘【rénzhì】 <formal> pig; swine.
the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty, ruled from 141 BC to 87 BC—54 years on the throne. The Han Synthesis pioneered a model that later dynasties followed till 1911. The Han SynthesisEmperor Wu of Han 汉武帝刘彻141 BC - 87 BC (54 years 20 days)
Emperor Wu of Han (Ebrey 49-50)Liu Che汉武帝 (r. 141 BC to 87 BC)(54 years 20 days) • Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast terri’torial expansion that occurred under his reign, as well as the strong and centralized Confucian state he organized. He is cited in Chinese history as the greatest emperor of the Han dynasty and one of the greatest emperors in Chinese history. Emperor Wu's effective rule transformed his dynasty that parallels Rome.
Dongfang Shuo 东方朔 (154-93 BCE) From time to time, 单于【chányú】 chief of the Xiongnu in ancient China, demanded the Han give him a wife. The court was divided in between pacifists and militants. The emperor had no idea how to handle the case. Dongfang Shuo plotted a scheme that silenced those who advocated interracial marriages. Headache about Xiongnu
In 200, Liu Bang led 300,000 troops to attack Xiongnu. 单于【chányú】 chief of the Xiongnu in ancient China Chanyu Mao Dun faked a retreat, thus leading Liu Bang to Baideng where 400,000 cavalryman 骑兵 formed a siege for 7 days and 7 nights The Siege of Baideng白登之围
Liu Bang’s Waterloo • The siege was only relieved after seven days when the Han royal court, under Chen Ping's (陳平) suggestion, sent spies to bribe Mao Dun's wife.
The Policy of Interracial Marriagea political marriage • 和亲【héqīn】 (of some feudal dynasties) attempt to cement relations with rulers of minority nationalities in the border areas by marrying daughters of the Han imperial family to them. • Those poor princesses, being unable to stand a rough life style, died quickly.
Dongfang Shuo’s Quick wits • While entertaining himself in Shanglin Park 上林苑 (138 BCE) • , Emperor Wu Di of the Han Dynasty pointed at a tree and asked Dongfang Shuo, "What is that called?" • "It's called Goodness." replied Dongfang Shuo carelessly. Wu Di had it written down. • Several years later, playing in the garden again, Wu Di saw the tree and turned to Dongfang Shuo to ask its name. "it's named Jusuo (Overlooking all)." said Dongfang Shuo again carelessly. • Wu Di's expression changed, "You have been cheating me over the years. How can the same tree have different names?" • Dongfang Shuo defended himself with fervor and assurance "A horse is called horse only when it grows up; it is a foal when young; chicken is the name for a chick when it becomes older; and a cow is called a calf when born. So it is with human beings: They are called infants when born and old men when aged. The tree was Goodness several years ago and is now Overlooking-All. All the objects in the universe change. Don't you think that is the truth?" • Satisfied with Dongfang Shuo's reply, Wu Di laughed heartily. "
San Xue 三学 • 三学—The Three Branches of Learning refer to Confucianism, Taoism (Daoism) & Buddhism. • Mostly, Chinese history has reflected the dynamics between Confucianism & Taoism (Daoism). • See Buddhism in a separate file • Buddhism in Chinese History • by Arthur F. Wright
Dong Zhongshu 董仲舒 (179–104 BC) was a Han Dynasty scholar who is traditionally associated with the promotion of Confucianism as the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state. The victory of Confucianism The Han Synthesis (pluot/Plumcot)The Architect (Ebrey 50)
The philosopher Dong Zhongshu developed a theory of correlative cosmology 天人感应 to explain how natural phenomena were omens of political changes. Dong Zhongshu shrewdly placed the son of heaven under heaven, not above heaven, thus Calf-ropinga leash on one’s ambition; Read the Han Synthesis online Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn Annals 〖春秋繁露〗 “Correlative Cosmology”The Son of Heaven
Three-Way ThoughtWoven Together • Confucianism: a social contract with its five-folds human relationships which is featured with hierarchy and reci’procity; rule by benevolence; yet there is no guarantee that everybody will become a Confucius’ ideal gentleman, therefore it is idealistic at its best, naïve at its worst; • Nevertheless, Confucianism provides a sense of moral guidance and restraint on the ruler who could be overthrown based on Mencius’ interpretation of the Mandate of Heaven; • Daoism/Taoism provided a larger framework for understanding the nature of the world in which men lived; It is a rule by the natural way; • Legalism: rule by law; effective in administration yet seems too harsh;
Confucianism is rooted in the human world, focusing on the order of a family-based on thisness--society; Family is seen as a microcosm of how relationships linking people together; The assumption is a well behaved son is not likely to become a rebel against an authority; Taoism implies that there is something much larger than a human world Taoism challenges us to reevaluate our position within the entire universe; Confucianism vs. Taoism
Travelers amid Mountains and Streams (谿山行旅; ink and slight color on silk; dimensions of 6¾ ft by 2½ ft. National Palace Museum, Taipei http://uwch-4.humanities.washington.edu/~WG/~134/Famous%20Paintings/ Fan Kuan’s Paintinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Travelers_Among_Mountains_and_Streams.png
Becoming One with Nature • Fan Kuan范寬 (fl. 990–1020) was a Chinese landscape painter of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). • Travelers amid Mountains and Streams, a large hanging scroll, is Fan Kuan's best known work. Fan based the painting on the Taoist principle of becoming one with nature. When looking at the painting, the viewer realizes how small he/she is compared to the big picture of nature. The painting focuses on the big picture of nature and the world as a whole instead of the individual.
historian Patricia Ebreyon the painting • [the]...foreground, presented at eye level, is executed in crisp, well-defined brush strokes. Jutting boulders, tough scrub trees, a mule train on the road, and a temple in the forest on the cliff are all vividly depicted. There is a suitable break between the foreground and the towering central peak behind, which is treated as if it were a backdrop, suspended and fitted into a slot behind the foreground. There are human figures in this scene, but it is easy to imagine them overpowered by the magnitude and mystery of their surroundings.
无为而治—Govern by doing nothing that is against nature; or govern by non-interference. This Wuwei should be translated as with no wrong actions. It implies there is a natural way to do things instead of fighting it. Wrong actions are counterproductive. The (Natural) Way
A central theme of the Daodejing is that correlatives are the expressions of the movement of dao, the way Correlatives in Chinese philosophy are not opposites, mutually excluding each other; they represent the ebb and flow of the forces of reality: yin/yang, male/female; excess/defect; leading/following; active/passive.— In other words, opposites are not oppositional; instead, they are complementary to each other. Both…And--holistic As opposed to the Western way of thinking (Aristotelian categories and genre studies-- In Poetics, Aristotle proposes to treat poetry in itself and of its various kinds, noting the essential quality of each.) that treats a thing in itself and of itself has philosophical implications in many ways. (Western dualism tends to be binary and oppositional) Either…Or Appositional vs. OppositionalComplementary vs. Competitive
The Dao’s holisticworldview has prescribed the philosophical underpinning of the Chinese medicine, martial arts, and many other things. Sourcebook 28 The key word is complementary as opposed to competitive The analytical mode tends to take things apart, treating each in an isolated manner; Holistic vs. AnalyticalInter-connectedness
The traditional Chinese medicine in contrast deals with something in a more comprehensive way. It pays more attention to the interrelationships among symptoms. Some of my students who have been studying Chinese medicine have concluded that learning Chinese and Chinese culture has changed their way of thinking to a great degree. Chinese medicine works better in maintaining lives Western medicine, for instance, is quite effective in dealing with individual symptoms; but it could have severe side effects. 头痛医头，脚痛医脚—treat headache when the head aches or treat a foot only when it hurts. The western medicine is quite effective in saving lives Daoism in Medical Practice
knowledge is partial • For the Taoists, knowledge is partial. We can never know things in their entirety. We can never know everything about any particular subject or situation. • So our knowledge, the basis for our actions, is always limited. • When we act on the basis of partial knowledge, there will be consequences, intended or unintended.
“Let the saw do the work.” • “Let the saw do the work.” Little James took it too literally when his father told him let the saw do the work. He threw the saw onto the ground and declared, “OK, let the saw do the work.”
A little tugboat 拖船 vs. a huge ocean liner—What is so revealing about the little tugboat towing a big ocean liner out of the harbor?
Martial Arts • “四两拨千斤”—Four ounces can brush off a thousand pounds/jin. (one kilogram equals 2.2 pounds/2 Chinese jin) • 太极拳【tàijíquán】 taijiquan, a kind of traditional Chinese shadow boxing; • Why was Taiji selected at the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games 2008? • The soft touch in Daoism is most representative of the way. • Water, the softest element, represents wisdom, resourcefulness
Daoism/Taoism at work • As Mr. Butchart exhausted the limestone in the quarry near their house, his enterprising wife, Jennie, conceived an un’precedented plan for refurbishing the bleak pit. • From farmland nearby she requisitioned tons of top soil, had it brought to Tod Inlet by horse and cart, and used it to line the floor of the abandoned quarry. • Little by little, under Jennie Butchart's supervision, the abandoned quarry blossomed into the spectacular Sunken Garden.
Contrast the breathtaking sunken garden with the delicate Japanese garden. Then you will suddenly understand what it means to be mathematically sublime as defined by I’mmanuelKant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804). Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen) is a 1764 book by Immanuel Kant. The first complete translation into English was published in 1799. The second was published in 1960 by the University of California Press. Sublime vs. Beautiful
What is Daoism/Taoism? • Daoism is featured with relativity in perspectives—Sourcebook 29; • It is marked with skepticism--Sourcebook 30; • Correlatives are not oppositional but appositional; • Self and other are part of the package. • Read Zhuangzi online
369 BC-286 BC (aged 83) an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BCE during the Warring States Period, a period corresponding to the philosophical summit of Chinese thought — the Hundred Schools of Thought. His name is sometimes spelled Chuang Tsu, Chuang Tzu, Zhuang Tze, Chouang-Dsi, Chuang Tse, Chuangtze or – in English – Master Chuang. Zhuang ZiCo-Founder of Taoism/Daoism