Chapter 6 - The French Revolution and Napoleon. Section 4 – The Age of Napoleon Begins. Napoleon Bonaparte I (1769-1821) Emperor of France. Setting the Scene
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Section 4 – The Age of Napoleon Begins
Napoleon Bonaparte I (1769-1821) Emperor of France
Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Corsica, a French-ruled island in the Mediterranean. His family were minor nobles, but had little money. At age nine, he was sent to France to be trained for a military career. When the revolution broke out, he was an ambitious 20-year-old lieutenant, eager to make a name for himself.
During the revolution, Napoleon rose quickly after winning major battles against the British and Austrians
In 1799, he helped overthrow the Directory and set up a three-man government known as the Consulate
A portrait of the three Consuls (between 1799 and 1804 ), with Napoleon in the center
By 1804, Napoleon had acquired enough power to assume the title Emperor of France
Napoleon on His Imperial Throne by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1806)
"A Grateful France Proclaims Napoleon the First Emperor of the French"
Napoleon controlled prices, encouraged new industry, and built roads and canals
He made peace with the Catholic Church in the Concordat of 1801, recognizing religious freedom for Catholics
Vers le retour à la paix religieuse Towards the return to religious peace
Napoleon's most lasting reform was a new law code, which became known as the Napoleonic Code
In 1805, Napoleon tried to invade England but his fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon waged economic warfare through the Continental System, which closed European ports to British goods
Napoleon watched the battle for the Russian city of Smolensk from a chair outside his tent. As fires lit up the walled city, he exclaimed: "It's like Vesuvius erupting. Don't you think this is a beautiful sight?“ "Horrible, Sire," replied an aide.
"Bah!" snorted Napoleon. "Remember, gentlemen, what a Roman emperor said: The corpse of an enemy always smells sweet“ In 1812, Napoleon pursued his dream of empire by invading Russia. The campaign began a chain of events that eventually led to his downfall. Napoleon's final defeat brought an end to the era of the French Revolution.
They resented the Continental System and Napoleon's effort to impose French culture
Napoleon in His Study by Jacques-Louis David, 1812
In 1812 the czar of Russia withdrew from the Continental System and Napoleon responded by invading
French in Moscow, 1812 (Artist unknown)
The Russians retreated, burning crops and villages as they went - the "scorched earth" policy
Napoleon entered Moscow in September, but because he couldn’t supply his army through the winter, began his withdraw in October
Napoleon's retreat from Moscow (Adolph Northern)
In 1813, Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig. He abdicated and was sent into exile
Louis XVIII returned as king of France, but many remained loyal to Napoleon
Louis XVIII, King of France (1814–24)
On June 18,1815, the French were defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon was again forced into exile
European leaders met at the Congress of Vienna to restore stability and order
The Great Powers of Europe met at Vienna from September 1, 1814, to June 9, 1815 to settle the future boundaries of the continent