Nail Diseases & Disorders Module 24 – 08’ Module 10 – 12’ - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Nail Diseases & Disorders Module 24 – 08’ Module 10 – 12’ PowerPoint Presentation
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Nail Diseases & Disorders Module 24 – 08’ Module 10 – 12’

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Nail Diseases & Disorders Module 24 – 08’ Module 10 – 12’

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  1. Nail Diseases & DisordersModule 24 – 08’Module 10 – 12’

  2. Introduction • Nails are small mirrors of the general health of the entire body • You must be able to recognize conditions you may encounter while servicing clients • Infectious conditions should not be treated by salon professionals

  3. Normal healthy nail • Firm • Flexible • Shiny • slightly pink in color • Some races have more yellow tones

  4. Surface should be • Smooth • Unspotted • Without pits • No splits

  5. The Nail • Onyx – composed of (protein) Keratin • Nail Bed – portion of the skin on which the nail plate rests • Nail root – Matrix – where the nail is formed • Lunula – half moon – light color is caused by the reflection of light where the matrix and connective tissue of the nail bed join • Nail Body – Plate – rests on and is attached to the nail bed

  6. Nail Malformation • Matrix – if disease, injury or infection occurs, the shape or thickness of the nail plate could change • A nail can be replaced as long as the nail matrix is in good condition • Nail replacement - 4 – 6 months

  7. Nail Disorders • A condition caused by injury to the nail or some disease or imbalance in the body • May have to refer client to a physician • Cosmetically improve certain nail plate conditions if the problem/disorder is cosmetic and not a medical disorder

  8. Refer to physician • It is your professional responsibility and a requirement of your license to know which option to chose • Infected • Inflamed • Broken • Swollen • Did you know? PP 207

  9. Bruised Nails • Blood clot formed under the nail plate (body) forming a dark purplish spot • Cause: injury to nail bed • Treatment: gently and avoid pressure • Prognosis: grow out

  10. Blue Nails • Discolored nails • Cause: • poor blood circulation • Heart disorder • Oral medications • Treatment: regular manicures with polish, tips or wraps • Prognosis: until cause is corrected

  11. Ridges • Running vertically down length of natural nail plate • Caused: • uneven growth of nails • Usually result of age

  12. Treatment: carefully buff nail plate to minimize appearance of ridges • Ridge filler is less damaging - used with colored polish • Prognosis: regular manicures to keep ridges to a minimum

  13. Corrugations (Seleronychia) • Wavy ridges • Cause: uneven growth usually from injury or illness • Treatment: Carefully buff • Prognosis: until it grows out and illness or injury is healed with no damage to the matrix

  14. Eggshell Nail • Noticeably thin, white nail plate (body) • More flexible than normal • Normally weaker & curve over free edge • Nail plate (body) separates from the nail bed and curves at the free edge • Cause: improper diet • Hereditary factors • Internal disease • Medication • Nervous disorder

  15. Treatment: use fine side of file do not use pressure • Fragile and can break easily • Do not use heavy pressure pusher at the base of the nail plate • Nail is thinnest here and most likely to be punctured • Prognosis: grow out after cause has been corrected

  16. Furrows (Depressions) • Lengthwise or across the nail • Cause: injury near or at the nail matrix • pregnancy • Stress • Lengthwise • psoriasis • Poor circulation • frostbite

  17. Treatment: Avoid use of metal implements • Prognosis: grow out if cause can be removed

  18. Beau’s Lines • Visible depressions running across the width of the natural nail plate • Cause: • Major illness or injury that has traumatized the body • Pneumonia • Adverse drug reaction • Surgery

  19. Heart failure • Massive injury • High fever • Matrix slows down producing nail cells for an extended period of time (week –month) • Treatment: • Avoid use of metal implements • Carefully buff

  20. Prognosis: nail plate thickness usually returns to normal after the illness or condition is resolved

  21. Hangnail (Agnail) • Cuticle split around nail – leaves a piece (fringe) of skin • Cause: dryness • cutting too much cuticle • Carelessly removing cuticle tissue

  22. Treatment: hot oil manicures • NEVER cut the living skin around the natural nail plate • IT IS AGAINST STATE REGULATORY AGENCY REGULATIONS • Can lead to serious infections for which you and the salon may be legally liable

  23. Prognosis: heals when treated (if not infection may set it) • Symptoms of infection • Redness • Pain • Swelling • Pus • Refer to a physician

  24. Leukonychia • White spots • Cause: injury to base of nail • Minor damage to Matrix • Myths: • Vitamin or mineral deficiency • Calcium or zinc deficiency • Treatment: polish • Prognosis: disappear as nail grows out

  25. Melanonychia • Darkening of nail plate (body) • Black band under or within nail plate –extending from the base to the free edge • Cause: localized area of increased pigment cells • Fairly common occurrence • Considered normal in African Americans • Could be indicative of a disease or condition in Caucasians

  26. Treatment: polish • Prognosis: grows out

  27. Onychatrophia • Atrophy or wasting away of the nail • Cause: injury or disease • Treatment: • file smooth with fine file • DO NOT USE METAL PUSHER! • Prognosis: depends on how badly injured or if disease is curable

  28. Onychauxis • Hypertophy – overgrowth of the nail in thickness • Cause: • local infection • Internal imbalance • hereditary • Treatment: • if infected - DO NOT TREAT! • If no infection - file smooth and buff • Prognosis: depends on cause, and how long it has been left untreated

  29. Discolored Nails • Nails that turn a variety of colors • Surface staining • Systemic disorder • Poor blood circulation

  30. Cause: • Surface stains from nail polish • Foods • Dyes • smoking • Internal discoloration due to • Biological • Medical • pharmaceuticals

  31. Treatment: • Colored polish • Prognosis: depends on cause

  32. Onychophagy • Bitten nails • Cause: • Chew the nail or hardened damaged skin surrounding the nail plate • habit • stress • nervous

  33. Treatment: • Enhancements • Frequent manicures • Care of hardened eponychium • Improving health and appearance of hands • Prognosis: good if habit stops

  34. Onychorrhexis • Abnormal brittleness or splits with striation (lengthwise lines) of the nail plate – appearing rough • Cause: • Injury to Matrix • excessive use of cuticle solvents/polish removers • Aggressive/careless filing • vitamin deficiencies • illness • frequent exposure to strong soaps, harsh cleaners • Hereditary causes

  35. Treatment: • Can only be treated if nail is not split and exposing the nail bed • oil manicures • Prognosis: good over time with treatment

  36. Plicatured Nail • Folded nail – 90 degrees or more down into tissue • Highly curved nail plate • Cause: • Injury that deforms the matrix • May be inherited • Leads to ingrown nails

  37. Treatment: careful filing or physician • Prognosis: possibly need to see a Podiatrist

  38. Nail Pterygium • Abnormal condition that occurs when skin is stretched by the nail plate • Forward growth of the Eponychium • Cause: • Improper cuticle care • Serious injury – burns • Adverse skin reaction to chemical products

  39. Treatment: • DO NOT USE METAL IMPLEMENTS! • Gentle massage of cuticle creams/oils • Hot oil manicures may be helpful • Prognosis: usually not reversible

  40. ** If irritated, painful or shows signs of infection – refer to a physician • Note: - Pterygium is not normal – denotes damage to the eponychium or hyponychium

  41. Splinter Hemorrhages • Appearance of a small splinter under the nail plate • Positioned lengthwise in the direction of growth • Cause: physical trauma or injury to the nail bed that damages capillaries and allows blood flow • Treatment: colored polish • Prognosis: grows out as nail grows

  42. Increased Curvature Nails • The greater the curvature of the Matrix – the greater the curvature of the free edge • Range • Mild • Severe pinching of the soft tissue at the free edge

  43. Tile – Shaped Nails • Increased crosswise curvature throughout the nail plate • Cause: increased curvature of the matrix • Treatment: none • Prognosis: irreversible