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Quantum Uncertainty. Project Leader: James Arnemann Members: Jesus Gallegos, Jose Castro, Matthew Constantino. Classical World Waves and Particles Deterministic Continuous Quantum World Particle-Wave Duality Probabilistic Discrete. What is Quantum Uncertainty?.

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Quantum uncertainty

Quantum Uncertainty

Project Leader: James Arnemann

Members: Jesus Gallegos, Jose Castro, Matthew Constantino


Quantum uncertainty

Classical World

  • Waves and Particles

  • Deterministic

  • Continuous

    Quantum World

  • Particle-Wave Duality

  • Probabilistic

  • Discrete


What is quantum uncertainty
What is Quantum Uncertainty?

  • You cannot know both the momentum and the position of a particle with exact certainty

  • ΔpΔx≥ħ/2 (uncertainty principle)

  • Δp = Change in momentum

  • Δx = Change in position

  • ħ = h/2π



First experiment polarizers
First Experiment: Polarizers

  • ½ ofunpolarizedlight will go through a polarizer polarized in one direction

  • No light polarized in one direction will go through a polarizer in an orthogonal (perpendicular) direction

0

prob. light comes thru


First experiment polarizers1
First Experiment: Polarizers

  • When a slanted polarizer is inserted, half goes through that one, and half goes through the third

1/8

prob. light comes thru

½ prob. light comes thru

¼

prob. light comes thru


Second experiment laser
Second Experiment: Laser

  • Laser pointers make dots

Δx


Second experiment laser1
Second Experiment: Laser

  • When a laser passes through a slit, its position changes

  • There is an uncertainty in position (Δx)

  • This causes uncertainty in momentum (Δp)

  • If Δx gets small, Δp must be bigger

  • Remember ΔxΔp must be larger than or equal to ħ/2


Second experiment laser2
Second Experiment: Laser

  • But, when the light does pass through the slit…

Δp

Δp

Δp

Δp


Second experiment laser3
Second Experiment: Laser

  • The smaller Δx is the bigger Δp must be

  • The smaller the slit the more the light spreads


In conclusion
In Conclusion…

  • ΔxΔp≥ħ/2 (uncertainty principle)

  • We can never know both variables with complete certainty

  • In trying to measure the position, we inevitably change the momentum and vice-versa

  • It took a whole lot of math to understand this however, math is a tool to help us conceptualize these abstract ideas