Phone no:-071546032 Lumbini Boarding School A place for the holistic development of child Computer science project PRESENTED BY ;- • KABITA PANDEY • PABITRA GHIMIRE
INTRODUCTION The word computer is derived from the latine word’s computare’s which means to calculate. A computer is an electronic device which perform the logical operation at data at very high speed. It can be used for the doing various tasks like creating document ,keeping account of daily business, preparing slides, composing music, depositor drawl of money from bank reserving tickets for travel, etc. Computer has established itself to be a powerful tool for doing each and every end of job..
Characteristic of computer Speed Accuracy Storage Automatic Diligence Versatility Reliability
Speed The electronic circuitry of a computer is based on two states of electricity i.e. on and off. The on and off states of electricity are represented by binary digit: 1 and 0.The data and instruction in the form of binary digits flow in the circuitry of a computer at a speed of light.
Accuracy • The computer is 100% accurate electronic device. It can process a large amount of data accurately according to the instructions at high speed. It always produces accurate information.
Storage • A computer has large storage capacity. It can store a large volume of data, information or programs in its internal and external memories. The storage capacity of storage device is measured in byte or higher unit of byte.
Automatic • A computer is an automatic machine. Once the instruction is given to a computer, we donot need to given the instructions again and again. It performs tasks automatically as the given instructions.
Diligence • A computer is diligent machine.It can perform the tasks repeatedly for a long time without losing accuracy and speed. It can continuously work for several days and months after the data and instruction are fed in it.
Versatility • A computer is a versatile machine. It can be used for performing different types of tasks in almost all fields such as education, communication, business, etc. It can be used for composing songs, designing automobile or monitoring the patients in ICU.
Reliability Computer is designed in a such a way that its different parts have a vary high life and degree of reliability. There is no any wearing and tearing part in the computer.
Limitation of computer • Despite its various capabilities, it has some limitation. As it is a programmable electronic machine, it cannot work without the programs. Tt performs only those tasks which are instructed by the program.
History of computer • The history of computer science started with human’s first effort to develop the concept of the counting. People used their fingers and pebbles, marks on the walls, etc. It leads to develop the abacus the first calculating device.
Abacus Abacus is the first calculating device. It is made up of wooden frame having two parts :heaven(upper part) and earth(lower part) separated by a mid-bar.It contains 11 vertical rods and each rod consists of movable beads.
Napier’s bone In 1617 AD, a Scottish mathematician, john Napier invented a calculating device called Napier's bone. It is base on the principle of logarithm. The bones consists of 11 sets of rectangular shaped bone rods. This device could perform multiplication and division of numbers
Slide rule In 1620,an English mathematician, William oughred invented slide rule It is the first analog device that works on the principle of logarithm It consists of two rulers where the middle ruler can slide over the outer ruler.
Pascaline:- Tn 1642 AD,afrancemathematician,Blaisepascal invented the first machinical calculating device called Pascaline.It is based on decimal number system.It consists of a series of 8 toothed metal wheels.Each wheel contain the dial having the degit from 0 to 9 on its circumferance.It could perform addition and subtraction of number upto eight digit i.e 9,99.99.999.
Stepped Reckoner: In 1694 AD,a German mathematician,Gottfriendwilhelm von leibniz developed the modified version of pascaline,called the Stepped Rockoner.It was the first calculator that could perform all four arithmetic operations:-addition,subtraction,multiplication and division.It could evaluate square roots by series ofsteppedadditins.The numbers were moved in steps from one column to other column for calculation.
Jacquared’s loom:- In 1801 AD,afrench textile weaver, joseph marie jacquard invented the first automatic loom called jacquard ‘s loom.It could be considered as a first programmable device.The loom could design the different patterns on woven fabric.The loom contained different set of punched wooden cards which had many holes on them.In the jacquared loom, the presence or absence of each hole in the card physically allows a colored thead to pass or stop.This punched wodden cards with holes led the development of punch card which were used later for storing data and instruction.
Analytical Engine Difference Engine Difference Engine and Analytic Engine:- In 1822 AD, a british mathematician, Charles Babbage designed the steam driven automatic mechanical calculating machine called ‘Difference Engine’.This machine would be able to calculate algebraic expressions and compute tablets numbers,such as logarithm tablets.In 1833 AD,charles Babbage designed another more general purpose programmable steam machine called ‘Analytical Engine’.
Lady Augusta Ada Lovelace:- Lady Augusta Ada lovelace, the first programmer,waas the lady who helped Charles Babbage to write programs for the analytic engine.She was the lady who suggested Charles Babbage to use binary number in his engine.Tohonour her contribution in the development of computer a programming language in named as’ADA’ in 1979 AD developed by the US Department of Defense.
Z3 computer:- The Z3 computer was an electro-machanical computer designed by KnradZuse.The Z3 was completed in Berlin in 1941 AD.It was the world’s first working programmable, fully automatic computing machine.
Tabulating Machine:- In 1890 AD, American statistician, Herman Hollerith invented a machine called ‘Tabulating Machine'. This machine is also known as ‘Hollerith desk 'The machine could automatically read data from punched card and count the data. He used this machine for tabulating data of 1890 AD census of USA and completed all the processing in only 3 years. The tabulating machine consisted of card reader which sensed the holes in the cards, a gear driven mechanism which could count and a large wall of dial indicators to display the results of count
Harvard Mark-1:- In 1937 AD, Howard Aiken prof. of Harvard University and IBM engineers started building the first automatic electromechanical computer in IBM laboratories. The computer was completed in 1943 AD and named as IBM ASSCC(Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator).It is also known as MARK-1.It had 18000 vacuum tubes to store data. It was 8 feet high,51 ft long and 2 ft. wide computer.
Atanasoff Berry Computer:- A professor of physic and mathematics,John Vincent Atanasoff and his student Clifford Berry developed the first electronic digital computer called ‘Atanasoff Berry Computer’ in 1942 AD.It was the first completed machine where binary number system was used.
Electronic Numerical Integrator and calculator (ENIAC):- In 1943 AD, Dr. John William Mauchly and John Presper Eckert developed the first general purpose computer, Electronic Numerical Integrator and calculator (ENIAC) at the university of Pennsylvania’s Moore school of Electrical Engineering ,USA. It was based on decimal number and contained 18000 vacuum tubes.
Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer(EDVAC):- In 1946 AD, Dr. John Mauchly ,John presper Eckert And John Von Neumann had developed the first stored program computer called Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) It was based an binary number system. It had stored program, central processor and memory for both data and programs.
Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer (EDSAC):- In 1949 AD, Professor Maurice wilkes and his team developed the first practical stored-program electronic computer at the university of cambridge in England.The EDSAC contained 3000 vacuum tubes and consumed 30KW of electricity.It used memory delay lines for memory.Theprogrames were input in EDSAC by using paper tape and outputs were displayed through the teleprinter (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer)
Universal Automatic computer (UNIVAC-1):- In 1951 AD, John William Mauchly and John presper Eckert had developed the first general purpose eletronic digital computer for commercial users in 1951 AD.It had mercury delaylines for storing programs.A magnetic tape was used for data input and output.
History of computer in Nepal:- Nepal Government had brought IBM 1401 i.e second generation computer on rent for census of 2028 BS.With the help of IBM 1401,Nepal has completed census of 1 crore 12.5 lakhs population in 1 year,7 months and 15 days.In 2031 BS, Nepal Government had esatablishedYantricSarinikaram Kendra (Electronic Data processing centre) which was later (after six years) named as National computer centre.In 2038 BS,Nepal had brought ICL 2050/10 (International Computer Limited,2900 series) computer for population census 2038 was completed in 1 year 3 months.