Europe Since WWII Unit 13– the Last one!!!!
The Allies WIN!!!!! • Big three meet at Yalta– 1945– discuss free elections –Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill • Potsdam Conference– late 1945 Truman replaces Roosevelt. Stalin refuses free elections!! • Churchill– “Iron Curtain” • Truman Doctrine– Containment • Marshall Plan– rebuild Europe– Stalin refuses aid!!!
NATO and WARSAW PACT • Common Market--- European Economic Community (EEC) • Schulman Plan– international control of coal and steel • Comecon--- Soviet counterpart to Common Market
Post WWII---- Decolonization of Africa and Asia • India—China---Israel---Egypt • Kenya • However—France = neocolonization Algeria– Pres Charles DeGaulle extends European domination in some part of Africa for economic dependency
4th Republic France-1945-58 • Democratic but politically unstable (27 governments) • Universal suffrage • Weak president- powerful legislature • Many political parties (coalition governmts) • failure to gracefully leave Indo-China • Botched the Suez War • Failed to settle Algerian Crisis
5th Republic France-1958-present • Powerful president-Charles De Gaulle • Weak cabinet—weak legislature • Separation of powers
DeGaulle’s achievements • Settle Algerian Crisis • Made France a nuclear power • Sustained general prosperity • Maintained stable democratic government • Made France more politically independent • BUT– late 60’s student unrest and social changes challenged him– Resigned 1968 and died of heart attack in 1970
Atlee and Labour Party:1945-51 • Limited Socialist program (modern welfare state) National Insurance Act and Health Service Act • Nationalized coal mines, public utilities, steel industry, Bank of England, RRs, motor transportation and aviation • Social Insurance legislation: cradle to grave security
Atlee • Socialized medicine- free national health care • Britain is in big debt • Beginning of the end of the Empire: India-1947; Palestine- 1948; Kenya- Mau- Mau uprising 1955 • Churchill returns- 1951-55 but never tries to destroy “welfare state” created by Atlee
Federated Republic of Germany • Created I 1949- capital Bonn • Army limited to 12 divisions (275,000) • Konrad Adenauer- 1st president a Christian Democrat • Coalition of moderates and conservatives • Pro-western foreign policy • German economic miracle
Italy-- post WWII • Gasperi- was prime minister from 1948-1953 • Coalition governments– short and unstable
Soviet Union & Eastern Block 1945 • Stalin wins “Great Patriotic War” • Reinstates Stalinism • Cold War- exchanges enemy “Hitler” with capitalism • Repress Soviet citizens outside country • During WWII– 2 million to work camps
Stalin Paranoia Deepens • Denounces artists and entertainers (including Sergei Eisenstein) • Repress freedom of speech and creativity • Savage attack on Soviet Jews
Export Stalinism • To Eastern Block countries-- one party rule, totalitarianism, puppet governments • Only Yugoslavia under Tito resists Soviet economic exploitation • Stalin purges dissident members of the “Communist Party” to get rid of “Tito” like members
STALIN DIES 1953!!! • Reformers – look for innovations in Soviet Union • DESTALINAIZATION– movement in Soviet Union to distant from Stalin oppressive policies in many areas. • Meanwhile– “Politburo politics” Who would succeed Stalin????
Nikita Kruschev • Emerged as leader in 1955 • Manintain monopoly on political power but shook it up with “new blood” • Economic policy changed to respond to need of people (more consumer goods) • Relaxed control over workers • Authors- Pasternak-Dr. Zhivago Solzhenitsen- Day in the Life of Ivan Denisonvich
Foreign Policy-Peaceful Coexistence • Effort toward “super powers” and pressure on 3rd world • Destalinization gave hope to Eastern Bloc • Anti- soviet uprisings in 1956– Poland and Hungary (Pres Nagy)– Soviets quickly put down!!!
Reasons for Kruschev Failure • Foreign policy problems- U2, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis, Communist China • Angered Stalin supporters( most in Central Committee) • Forced to resign in 1964 (only Soviet leader who did not die in office)
Breshnev and Kosygin- 1964 • Breshnev- head of Communist Party( this is where the power really exists) • Kosygin- President Politburo(was normally jointly given to head of Party) – K will be forced out by 1968 and B will hold both titles. • Re-stalinization– heavy industry, arms build up, strong show to the west and commitment to peaceful coexistence.
Social History- Post WWII • “Big Science”- nuclear, DNA Sputnik, space exploration, physics • 1942- Oppenheimer- Los Alamos- atomic bomb (Rutherford split the atom in 1919) • CERN- European Council of Nuclear Research– trying to stop the “brain drain” to USA in 50’s and 60’s
Europe Pools Science resources • Joint projects-- France and England the Concorde 1970’s - and the Chunnel- 1990’s
Class struggle– Class mobility • Middle class loses its propertied advantage- included more professions, less self- employed– more middle management • Movement toward Socialism • Adopted social programs after US (EX. social security & workman’s Comp) • Results in rise of Affluence • Gadget revolution-consumerism
Women and the Family • Women became more equal and independent; less confined & stereotyped • Married earlier– children quickly • “Baby Boom” 1945-1964 • Birthrate declines by 1968 ---2.5, not 3.0. • Women’s movement of the 1960 differs from women’s movement of early 1900’s= political versus economic
Why smaller family size??? • Birth control • Education • Work-career-independence • Expense • Small families meant emancipation • Rising women’s employment directly related to declining birthrate
Divorce Rate Rises • Women educated– can leave and support themselves • Interfered with career • Reflected change in “defined” role of both genders • Early marriage- raise children– move on– (remarriages increase) • Divorce rate/1980-US-1 in 4;Sweden-1 in2