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Chapter 12. Introduction to Plants. Section 1: Objectives. Identify 4 characteristics that all plants share. Describe the 4 main groups of plants. Explain the origin of plants. Plant Characteristics.

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chapter 12

Chapter 12

Introduction to Plants

section 1 objectives
Section 1: Objectives
  • Identify 4 characteristics that all plants share.
  • Describe the 4 main groups of plants.
  • Explain the origin of plants.
plant characteristics
Plant Characteristics
  • One plant may seem different than another, but all plants have certain things in common.
    • Plants come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
  • All plants have the following in common:
    • Photosynthesis
    • Cuticles
    • Cell walls
plant characteristics1
Plant Characteristics
  • All plant cells contain chlorophyll (green pigment).
  • Chlorophyll is found in chloroplasts.
  • Plants use energy from sunlight to make food from carbon dioxide and water.
  • This process is called photosynthesis.
  • This makes all plants producers.
plant characteristics2
Plant Characteristics
  • Most plants live on dry land and need sunlight to survive.
  • But why don’t plants dry out?
  • Plants are protected by a cuticle.
  • A cuticle is a waxy layer that coats the surfaces of plants.
  • This keeps the plant from drying out.
plant characteristics3
Plant Characteristics
  • How do plants stay upright?
  • They have no skeleton or muscles for support.
  • They have a rigid cell wall instead.
  • Carbohydrates and proteins form a hard material inside the cell wall.
  • Cell walls support and protect the plant cell.
plant characteristics4
Plant Characteristics
  • Plants have 2 stages in their life cycle:
    • Sporophyte stage: plants make spores
      • In suitable environments, the spores of these plants grow into new plants.
    • Gametophyte stage: plant produces sex cells
      • These cells cannot grow into new plants.
      • Instead the cells grow into spores and the cycle repeats.
plant characteristics5
Plant Characteristics
  • Plants can be divided into 2 main groups:
    • Nonvascular plants: lack roots, stems, and leaves
      • Example: mosses
    • Vascular plants: has roots, stems, or leaves
      • Example: Tomato plants
      • These are the 2 main groups that make up Kingdom Plantae.
plant characteristics6
Plant Characteristics
  • Vascular plants are divided into 3 groups:
    • Seedless plants
    • Gymnosperms
    • Angiosperms
  • Non-flowering seedless plants are called gymnosperms.
  • Flowering seedless plants are called angiosperms.
plant characteristics7
Plant Characteristics
  • What other organisms do plants share a common ancestor with?
    • What is a common ancestor?
  • Because plants and algae share many similarities, scientists believe that they share a common ancestor.
section 2 objectives
Section 2: Objectives
  • List 3 nonvascular plants and 3 seedless vascular plants.
  • Explain how seedless plants are important to the environment.
  • Describe the relationship between seedless vascular plants and coal.
nonvascular plants
Nonvascular Plants
  • These types of plants don’t have vascular tissue.
  • They grow in places that are damp and moist.
  • Each cell of the plant must get water from the environment.
  • Remember, these plants don’t have roots, stems, or leaves.
  • Examples: mosses, liverworts, & hornworts
nonvascular plants1
Nonvascular Plants
  • Reasons these plants are important to the environment:
    • First to grow in a new environment
    • Reduce soil erosion
    • Food source for some animals
  • Mosses often live together in large groups.
  • They cover soil or rocks with a mat of tiny green plants.
  • Mosses have leafy stalks and rhizoids.
  • A rhizoid is a root-like structure that holds the plants in place and helps plants get water and nutrients.
liverworts and hornworts
Liverworts and Hornworts
  • Like mosses, liverworts and hornworts are usually small, nonvascular plants that usually live in damp places.
  • Nonvascular plants are usually the first plants to live in a new environment, such as newly exposed rock.
  • When these nonvascular plants die, they form a thin layer of soil.
seedless vascular plants
Seedless Vascular Plants
  • Examples include ferns, horsetails, and club mosses.
  • These plants once grew much taller than they actually do today.
  • In order to adapt to their environments, these plants change their shape and height over time.
  • These grow in many places ranging from cold to warm climates.
  • Most ferns have a rhizome- an underground stem from which leaves and roots grow.
  • Ferns still go through the sporophyte and gametophyte stages in their life cycle.
importance of seedless vascular plants
Importance of Seedless Vascular Plants
  • These play many roles in the environment:
    • Help form soil
    • Prevent soil erosion
    • Popular houseplants
    • The remains of ancient ferns and club mosses form coal.
    • Coal is a fossil fuel and is used for energy.
section 3 objectives
Section 3: Objectives
  • Describe 3 ways that seed plants differ from seedless plants.
  • Describe the structure of seeds.
  • Compare angiosperms and gymnosperms.
characteristics of seed plants
Characteristics of Seed Plants
  • As with seedless plants, the life cycle of seed plants alternates between 2 cycles:
    • Sporophyte stage: plant produces spores to be distributed
    • Gametophyte stage: plant produces sex cells which mature into spores
characteristics of seed plants1
Characteristics of Seed Plants
  • Seed plants produce seeds.
  • Unlike other plants, these plants produce tiny structures called seeds which help nourish and protect the sporophyte.
  • Pollen forms within these plants.
  • Pollen: tiny granules that contain the male gametophyte of seed plants.
structure of seeds
Structure of Seeds
  • A seed forms after fertilization in plants.
  • Seeds have some advantages over seedless plants:
    • Have their own food supply
    • Seeds can be spread by animals
    • Animals spread seeds more efficiently than wind spreads spores.
structure of seeds1
Structure of Seeds
  • A seed is made up of 3 parts:
    • Young plant (sporophyte)
    • Stored food
    • Seed coat
    • The purpose of the seed coat is to surround and protect the sporophyte.
  • These are seed plants that do not have flowers or fruits.
  • These seeds are usually protected by a cone.
  • Any plant/tree that has cones would be an example of a gymnosperm.
  • Pine trees are probably the most popular example.
  • Conifers are probably the most familiar example.
  • The word conifer comes from 2 words: “cone-bearing.”
  • Pollination: the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure of seed plants
  • Vascular plants that produce flowers and fruits.
  • Most abundant group of plants.
  • Can be found in almost every ecosystem.
  • Flowers help angiosperms reproduce and some depend on wind to transfer pollen from plant to plant.
  • Divided into 2 classes:
    • Monocots: have one seed coat
      • Grasses, onions, palm trees
      • Tips of flowers separate in parts of 3
      • Leaves have parallel veins
    • Dicots: have 2 seed coats
      • Roses, cactuses, sunflowers
      • Tips of flowers are separated in parts of 4 or 5
      • Leaves have branching veins
  • Flowering plants provide many land animals with the food they need to survive.
  • People use flowering plants in many ways.
    • Major food crops, such as corn, wheat, and rice, are flowering plants.
  • Flowering plants are used to make cloth fibers, rope, medicines, rubber, perfume oil, and building materials.
chapter 12 sec 3 pop quiz
Chapter 12 Sec. 3 Pop Quiz
  • 1)List 2 characteristics of seed plants.
  • 2) When does a seed form in plants?
  • 3) List the 3 parts of seeds.
  • 4) What is the difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms?
  • 5) What does “conifer” mean?
  • 6) List and describe the 2 groups of angiosperms.
section 4 objectives
Section 4: Objectives
  • Listthree functions of roots and three functions of stems.
  • Describe the structure of a leaf.
  • Identify the parts of a flower and their functions.
transportation in plants
Transportation In Plants
  • There are two types of vascular tissue in plants:
    • Xylem is the type of tissue in vascular plants that provides support and conducts water and nutrients from the roots.
    • Phloemis the tissue that conducts food in vascular plants.
transportation in plants1
Transportation In Plants
  • Root Functions: The following are the main functions of roots:
    • Roots supply plants with water and dissolved minerals.
    • Roots hold plants securely in the soil.
    • Roots store surplus food made during photosynthesis
transportation in plants2
Transportation In Plants
  • The layers of cells that cover the surface of the roots is called the epidermis.
  • After water and minerals are absorbed by the epidermis, they diffuse into the center of the root where the vascular tissue is located.
  • A root cap can be found at the end of the root.
    • The root cap protects the tip and helps the root continue to grow.
transportation in plants4
Transportation In Plants
  • There are two kinds of root systems— taproot systems and fibrous root systems.
  • Taproot systems have a main root, or tap root, that grows downward.Dicots and gymnosperms usually have tap root systems.
  • Fibrous systems have several roots that spread out from the base of the stem. Monocots usually have fibrous root systems.
transportation in plants5
Transportation In Plants
  • A stem connects a plant’s roots to its leaves and flowers. A stem also has the following functions:
    • Stems support the plant body.
    • Stems transport materials between the root system and the shoot system.
    • Some stems store materials.
transportation in plants6
Transportation In Plants
  • Many plants have stems that are soft, thin, and flexible.
  • These stems are called herbaceous stems.
  • A cross section of an herbaceous stem is shown on the next slide.
transportation in plants7
Transportation In Plants
  • Trees and shrubs have rigid stems made of wood and bark.
  • This wood and bark provides for more support.
  • These stems are called woody stems.
transportation in plants8
Transportation In Plants
  • The main function of leaves is to make food for the plant.
  • The structure of leaves, shown on the next slide,is related to their main function— photosynthesis.
transportation in plants9
Transportation In Plants
  • Some leaves have functions other than photosynthesis.
    • The leaves of many cactuses are modified as spines. These spines keep animals from eating the cactuses.
    • The leaves of sundews are modified to catch insects, which the sundew digests.
transportation in plants10
Transportation In Plants
  • Flowers are adaptations for sexual reproduction.
  • Sepals and Petals The modified leaves that make up the outermost ring of flower parts and protect the bud are called sepals.
  • Petals arebroad, flat, thin leaflike parts of a flower.
transportation in plants11
Transportation In Plants
  • The male reproductive structure of a flower is called a stamen.
  • Apistil is the female reproductive structure of a flower.