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Biochemistry of Blood Elements. Vladimíra Kvasnicová. The figure is found at http://www.biosbcc.net/doohan/sample/htm/Blood%20cells.htm (March 2007). Blood Elements Count. erythrocytes 4 - 6 x 10 6 /  l leukocytes 4 - 9 x 10 3 /  l neutrophils 47 - 75 %

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biochemistry of blood elements

Biochemistry of Blood Elements

Vladimíra Kvasnicová

The figure is found at http://www.biosbcc.net/doohan/sample/htm/Blood%20cells.htm (March 2007)

blood elements count
Blood Elements Count

erythrocytes 4 - 6 x 106 / l

leukocytes 4 - 9 x 103 / l

neutrophils 47 - 75 %

eosinophils 1 - 4 %

basophils 0 - 1 %

lymphocytes 23 - 45 %

monocytes 2 - 11 %

thrombocytes 150 - 400 x 103 / l

red blood cells erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells(erythrocytes)

The figure is found at http://www.vghtpe.gov.tw/~hema/hematopoitic%20cell%20differentiation/RBC.htm (March 2007)

red blood cells erythrocytes1
Red Blood Cells(erythrocytes)
  • Function
    • erythrocyte as a bag forhemoglobin
    • O2→ transport, reactive oxygen species (ROS)
    • CO2→ transport, formation of HCO3-
    • H+→ transport, maintaining pH(35% of blood buffering capacity)
red blood cells erythrocytes2
Red Blood Cells(erythrocytes)
  • Structure
    • large surface(diffusion of gases)
    • cytoskeletal proteins (elasticity)
    • membrane as an osmometer(Na+/K+-ATPase)

The figure is found at http://www.biosbcc.net/doohan/sample/htm/Blood%20cells.htm (March 2007)

slide6

What happens to red blood cells when placed in hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic solutions?

  • acanthocytes
  • hemolysis(blood, plasma)
  • osmolarity(285 mosmol/l)

The figure is found at http://www.vet.purdue.edu/depts/bms/nour/bms520/content/blood/b9.htm (March 2007)

slide7

Red Blood Cells(erythrocytes)

membrane and cytoskeletal proteins

hereditary spherocytosis

The figures are found at http://www.wadsworth.org/chemheme/heme/microscope/pix/spherocytes_nw.jpgandhttp://www.mie.utoronto.ca/labs/lcdlab/biopic/fig/4.23b.jpg (March 2007)

slide8

Red Blood Cells(erythrocytes)

  • membrane transporters
    • Na+/K+-ATPase (active transport)
    • GLUT-1 (insulin independent)
    • anion exchanger = band 3 protein (Cl-/HCO3-)
  • membrane antigens
    • blood groups
slide9

ABO system

The figure is found at http://www.life.umd.edu/classroom/bsci422/mosser/ABO.gif (March 2007)

slide10

Red Blood Cells(erythrocytes)

  • metabolism
    • glucose is the main fuel
    • 90% anaerobic glycolysis (ATP, lactate: Cori cycle; 2,3-BPG)
    • 10% hexose monophosphate pathway (NADPH)
    • enzyme defects : * glucose-6-P dehydrogenase * pyruvate kinase

→ hemolytic anemia

slide11

Red Blood Cells(erythrocytes)

  • other important enzymes
    • carbonate dehydratase (= carbonic anhydrase, CA)
    • methemoglobin reductase
    • superoxide dismutase
    • catalase antioxidative system
    • glutathione peroxidase
    • glutathione reductase
slide12

Red Blood Cells(erythrocytes)

superoxide dismutase (SOD)

O2• + O2• + 2 H+H2O2 + O2

catalase (CAT)

H2O2 + H2O2 2 H2O + O2

slide13

Red Blood Cells(erythrocytes)

glutathione peroxidase (GPx)

2 GSH + H2O2 GS-SG + 2 H2O

2 GSH + R-O-OHGS-SG + H2O + ROH

glutathione = „redox buffer“

The figure is found at http://www.cs.stedwards.edu/chem/Chemistry/CHEM47/ResMethods2003/graphics/?M=A (March 2007)

slide14

glutathione reductase

GS-SG + NADPH+H+

2 GSH + NADP+

Hexose Monophosphate Pathway

The figure is found at http://www.med.unibs.it/~marchesi/ppp.html (March 2007)

slide15

Glutathione system

2

NADPH+H+

The figure is found at http://www.vrp.com/newsimages/march04Fig1.jpg (March 2007)

slide16

Red Blood Cells(erythrocytes)

  • Erythropoesis

The figure is found at http://www.biosbcc.net/doohan/sample/htm/Blood%20cells.htm (March 2007)

slide17

White Blood Cells(leukocytes)

The figure is found at http://faculty.ccp.edu/dept/biol/All_five_leukocytes.jpg (March 2007)

white blood cells leukocytes
White Blood Cells(leukocytes)

Classification

  • granulocytes
    • neutrophils (phagocytosis)
    • eosinophils (alergy, parasites)
    • basophils (alergy)
  • agranulocytes
    • monocytes → macrophages
    • lymphocytes (B, T)
reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in blood elements
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen speciesin blood elements

ERYTHROCYTES

  • enzymes for deactivation of ROS formed from high content of oxygen found in the cells

PHAGOCYTES

  • enzymes for production of ROS and RNS to destroy particles in phagosomes
white blood cells leukocytes1
White Blood Cells(leukocytes)

Neutrophils(microphages)

  • high content of lysosoms (hydrolytic enzymes)
  • few mitochondria
  • glucose dependent: NADPH production
  • NADPH is used for production of reactive oxygen species → they kill bacteria
  • after activation: RESPIRATORY BURST= increased consumption of O2 and glucose
slide21

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)produced by neutrophils

ClO-

The figure is found at http://courses.washington.edu/conj/bloodcells/radicals.gif (March 2007)

white blood cells leukocytes2
White Blood Cells(leukocytes)

iNOS

NO· is a reactive nitrogen species used by phagocytes

The figure is found at http://www.pigur.co.il/imgpku/no_synthesis.gif (March 2007)

white blood cells leukocytes3
proteolytic enzymes /

elastase

collagenase

gelatinase

kathepsin G

protease inhibitors

1-protease inhibitor(= 1-antitrypsin)

1-antichymotrypsin

2-macroglobulin

White Blood Cells(leukocytes)

produced by phagocytes = plasma proteins

Their ratio affects an extent of inflammation!

slide24

Basofils

contain heparin and histamine

The figures are found at http://life.nthu.edu.tw/~lslpc/BioPhyTalk/heparin01.jpg and http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/~mqzwww/images/histamine.gif (March 2007)

slide25

B-lymphocytes

produce antibodies (= immunoglobulins, -globulins)

( or )

(, , , , )

The figure is found at http://www-immuno.path.cam.ac.uk/~immuno/part1/lec06/ab12.gif (March 2007)

slide26

Platelets(thrombocytes)

The figure is found at http://image.bloodline.net/stories/storyReader$590 (March 2007)

slide27

Platelets(thrombocytes)

participate in hemostasis

  • adhesion: glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins (hyalomera)
  • activation: free collagen, thrombin, ADP, TxA2, serotonin
  • contraction of thrombus: Ca2+, glycogen, ATP

The figure is found at http://www.biosbcc.net/doohan/sample/htm/Hemostasis.htm (March 2007)