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Diversity and Stress. Chapter 15 . Chapter Overview. Defining minority, race, and ethnicity Positive aspects of minority status Stressors challenging minorities Health status differences of minorities Poverty and educational level Family life Age and Physical Disability. Definitions.

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chapter overview
Chapter Overview
  • Defining minority, race, and ethnicity
  • Positive aspects of minority status
  • Stressors challenging minorities
  • Health status differences of minorities
  • Poverty and educational level
  • Family life
  • Age and Physical Disability
definitions
Definitions
  • Minority: racial, religious, or ethnic group smaller than and differing from the larger, controlling group in the community or nation
  • Race: a group of people with similar physical traits, blood types, genetic patterns, and/or inherited characteristics
  • Ethnicity: a group of people having a common heritage such as common customs, characteristics, language, and history
did you know
Did You Know?
  • The U.S. population will increase by 52% by the year 2050 to a whopping 392 million!
  • The elderly population (65 years of age and older) will increase from today’s figure of 12.5% to 20% by the year 2050
positive aspects of minority status
Positive Aspects of Minority Status
  • Asian American contributions
    • Acupuncture
    • Herbal medicines
    • Relaxation techniques
    • Respect and value toward their community
  • Native American contributions
    • “Wholism” concept
    • Harmony (balance) concept of health
    • Concern for the environment
positive aspects of minority status cont
Positive Aspects of Minority Status (cont.)
  • Latino/Hispanic American contributions
    • Social and family support
    • Spiritual aspects of health
  • African American contributions
    • Importance of church
    • Enjoyment of life through sports, arts, social interaction
stressors challenging minorities
Stressors Challenging Minorities
  • Racism
  • Culture conflicts
  • Acculturation stressors
  • Hate crimes
health status differences of minorities
Health Status Differencesof Minorities
  • Health care disparities
  • Recent national health objectives focus on minorities (Healthy People 2010)
    • Gender, race and ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation
  • Infant mortality
  • Life expectancy
health status differences of minorities cont
Health Status Differencesof Minorities (cont.)
  • Years of potential life lost
  • Hypertension
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Cancer
  • Mental health
    • suicide
    • homicide
poverty and educational level
Poverty and Educational Level
  • These factors are related and are associated with poorer health
  • The lower the socioeconomic level, the poorer the health status
  • Table 15.3 shows poverty levels in the United States (2002)
  • Women in general earn less than men and have fewer opportunities
  • Age and disability status are other factors
family life
Family Life
  • Two important factors of family life that are related to stress development
    • Homelessness
      • 3.5 million homeless at some time during the year
      • The number of homeless is increasing
    • Type of family structure
      • Stress can lead to one-parent or no-parent families
age and physical disability
Age and Physical Disability
  • The elderly are not as revered in the United States as they are in some countries, a source of stress
  • People with disabilities suffer from the challenge of their condition and from discriminatory attitudes