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Historical perspective of endocrinology. Beginning of science. When do scientific explorations begin? Early science Linked to medicine rather than intellectual curiosity Some behaviors/traditions No scientific understanding Scientific merit. History of endocrinology.

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Presentation Transcript
beginning of science
Beginning of science
  • When do scientific explorations begin?
  • Early science
    • Linked to medicine rather than intellectual curiosity
    • Some behaviors/traditions
      • No scientific understanding
      • Scientific merit
history of endocrinology
History of endocrinology
  • Blood drinking and organ eating
    • Gaining strength
    • Gaining advantage over enemy
    • Treatment for diseases (organotherapy)
      • Impotence
      • Endocrine disorders
  • What is in the blood?
    • Source of life (Leviticus 17:11)
  • Understanding the role of gonads (ovaries and testis) in sexual reproduction
    • Fertility and contraception
    • Removal of ovaries
      • No pregnancy
    • Removal of testis
      • Eunuchs serving in Pharaoh’s harem
    • Use of tampons as a contraceptive
      • Materials from male are responsible for pregnancy
  • Methods of pregnancy diagnosis
    • Morning sickness
  • Detection of diabetes
    • Excessive thirst
  • Laid the foundation
  • Hippocrates (father of medicine)
    • First known physician
      • Many clinical Observations
      • Considered medicine as science and separated practice from religion
  • Hippocrates
    • Theory of inheritance
      • Pangenesis theory (Seeds come from all parts of body and stored in testis)
    • Theory of four humors
      • Black bile, yellow bile, phlegm (green), and blood
      • Correction of health problems through balancing four humors
    • Sexing of offspring through testis removal
      • Right-male
      • Left-female
    • Identification of vascularized glands
  • Aristotle
    • History of animals
      • Sows
    • Loss of ovaries via ovariectomy
      • Contraception
      • Increased growth
    • Argument against preformation theory
      • Embryo dissection
    • Methods of contraception
      • Diet (obesity/starvation)
      • Rhythm method
      • Ovariectomy
      • Vaginal and cervical environment manipulation
  • Organoectomy and organotherapy
    • Eating brain for epilepsy
    • Eating testis for impotence
  • Galen
    • Discovery of thyroid gland
      • Ductless gland similar to salivary gland
    • Vital spirit
      • Substances from brain being carried into the blood
    • Pituitary gland
      • Storage of waste products from brain
  • Galen
    • Peri Spermatos (on seed)
      • Castration
        • Decreased libido
        • Changed fat deposition
        • Changed hair distribution
      • Substance from testis affected physical characteristics
middle ages
Middle ages
  • No significant progress in science
    • Domination of church
      • Diseases = act of God
      • Surgery = dirty medical practice
  • Chinese
    • Cure for Goiter
      • Consumption of seeweed and shellfish
      • Dysfunction of thyroid gland
    • Cause of diabetes
    • Testicular organotherapy
    • Extraction of steroid and metabolites from urine
      • Varying drying temperature to isolate different steroids
renaissance rebirth
Renaissance (rebirth)
  • Explosion of arts and science
    • Anatomy
      • Da Vinci and Michelangelo
    • Galileo Galilei
    • Development of miscroscope and telescope
      • Robert Hooke
        • Discovery of cells
      • Antoine van Leeuwenhoek
        • Discovery of sperms
renaissance rebirth1
Renaissance (rebirth)
  • William Harvey
    • Circulation of blood
    • Refuted preformation theory
      • Dissection of uterus immediately after mating
        • No congealed mass
        • No female/male parts
  • De Bordeaux (vitalist)
    • Emanation from each organ is crucial for health
      • No experiments
renaissance rebirth2
Renaissance (rebirth)
  • Discovery of iodine as a treatment for Goiter
    • Bernard Courtois
first endocrinology experiment1
First endocrinology experiment
  • Hunter and Berthold
    • Growth of organs during transplantation
      • Rooster as a model
Removal of testis
    • Removal of male characteristics (comb)
  • Transplantation of testis
    • Normal male characteristics
  • Characteristics controlled by substance in blood, not by nerves
    • Completely disconnected testis
  • Claude Bernard
    • Exocrine vs. Endocrine gland (liver)
      • Bile from gall bladder
      • Internal secretion (glucose from hepatic glycogen)
  • Thomas Addison
    • Link between adrenal dysfunction and blood
      • Addison’s disease (hypoadrenalism)
  • Brown-Sequard
    • Organotherapy
      • Extract from testis to rejuvenate older men
George Murray
    • Hypothyroid (myxoedematous) patients can be treated successfully with thyroid extract
  • Von Merring and Minkowski
    • Relationship between diabetes and pancreas dysfunction
      • Removal of pancreas resulted in constant urination
      • Urine from dogs attracted houseflies when their pancreas were removed
Hale White
    • Feeding pancreas/injection of pancreas extract to treat diabetes
      • Did not work (allergic reaction/too little insulin being stored in pancreas)
  • Pierre Marie
    • Pituitary gland tumor as a cause of acromegaly
      • Excessive growth hormone from tumor resulted in excessive growth
      • Feeding of dried pituitary gland
        • No effects on growth
Oliver and Schafer
    • Relationship between adrenal gland and blood pressure
      • Extract from adrenal medulla and pituitary gland caused increase in blood bressure
      • Extract from thyroid gland caused fall in blood pressure
    • “On Internal Secretion” (1895)
discovery of the first hormone
Discovery of the first hormone
  • Starling and Bayliss
    • Interaction between duodenum loop and pancreas
      • Passing of foodstuff (chyme, highly acidic) through duodenal loop stimulated release of enzyme by pancreas
      • Initial thought – nervous system (vagus nerve)
      • Denervated duodenum stimulated release of pancreatic enzymes when stimulated with acid
        • Chemical reflex rather than nerve reflex
        • Reaction through blood
      • Discovery of secretin
what is in the name
What is in the name?
  • Hormone
    • Greek “I excite” or “I arouse”
    • Transported by blood from one organ, which secretes the substance, to the organ where the effect is exerted