Fluorescein Angiography. Digre , Corbett.
First introduced in 1960, sodium fluorescein, a dye, is administered through an angiocatheter (3-5cc) by a nurse or technician. Indocyanine green is another form of angiography, mor utilized for visualization of the choroidal than the central retinal circulation.
Setting up the injection of fluoresceinfor Fluorescein Angiography.
(B) The first hint of dye arrival is in the choroid and then the central retinal artery
(C) Once the arteries are filled, there is laminar flow in the veins. Notice the stripe in the veins
(D) All of the vessels are filled,arteries and veins and choroid
(E) Later, 6.04.6 minutes the dye is fading. If there are abnormalities like disc staining you begin to see it now.
The term "dye leakage" is used for pathologic conditions within the ocular circulation where the vessels become permeable to fluorescein.Whereas "staining" is the direct result of leakage--from an inflammatory exudate, a scar, or an altered vessel wall.
(A) Normal disc staining
(B) Photograph of dye staining of the disc
(C) Photograph of dye leakage of the disc
(C) A view of the clinical appearance of a pre-retinal hemorrhage. This patient has multiple laser marks due to neovascularization.
(B) Fluorescein of a pre-retinal hemorrhage due to neovascularization